Design and Evaluation of the Compliant Structure for a Quadruped Robot
Abstract: It can cause large ground impact force and postural instability when a rigid quadruped robot walks on the ground. To improve walking performances, a bio-inspired compliant structure was designed for a quadruped robot, which features four elastic legs and two flexible waist joints. The elastic legs are composed of a linear sliding pair con-strained by compression spring at the end of each leg. The flexible waist is constituted with two rotating joints in roll and yaw, which are constrained by torsion springs. A center pattern generator (CPG) model was established, used as the trajectory planner of the robot. Mechanical analysis and physcial experiments were combined to determine the stiffness of all the springs. Comparative experiments show that the elastic legs can effectively reduce the ground impact force and the flexible waist can decrease the swing of the body, which contribute to achieve higher postural stability when the quadruped robot walks on the ground.
文章引用: 李冬冬 , 张秀丽 , 周坤玲 , 龚加庆 (2013) 四足机器人结构柔顺化设计与性能评价。 人工智能与机器人研究， 2， 1-9. doi: 10.12677/AIRR.2013.21001
 T. Matsuki, I. Mizuuchi, S. Kagami, et al. Quadruped robot with spine structure and simulation environment. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference of the Robotics Society of Japan, Sap- poro, 18-20 Sep-tember 1998: 85-88.
 T. Matsuki, I. Mizuuchi, S. Kagami, et al. Motion generation and action control of a walking quadruped robot with flexible spine structure. Proceedings of 1999 JSME Conference on Robotics and Mechatronics (ROBOMEC’99), 1999, IP2-42-063.
 T. Takuma, M. Ikeda and T. Masuda. Facilitating multi-modal locomotion in a quadruped robot utilizing passive oscilla-tion of the spine structure. Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2010: 4940-4945.
 M. Hasan, H. Kani, M. Derafshian, H. J. Bidgoly, et al. Effect of flexible spine on stability of a passive quadruped robot: Experi- mental results. International Conference on Robotics and Bio- mimetics, Phucket, 7-11 December 2011: 2793-2798.
 D. Kuehn, F. Grimminger, F. Beinersdorf, et al. Additional DOFs and sensors for bio-inspired locomotion: Towards active spine, ankle joints, and feet for a quadruped robot. International Con- ference on Robotics and Biomimetics, Phucket, 7-11 December 2011: 2780-2786.
 E. Guizzo. Boston dynamics building fast-running robot cheetah, new agile humanoid, 2011. http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/military-robots/boston-dynam-ics-building-fast-running-robot-cheetah-new-agile-humanoid
 M. Raibert, K. Blankespoor, G. Nelson, et al. Big dog, the rough terrain quadruped robot. Proceeding of 17th IFAC World Con- gress, Seoul, 6-11 July 2008: 10822-10825.
 S. Aoi, T. Yamashita, A. Ichikawa, et al. Hysteresis in gait transi- tion induced by changing waist joint stiffness of a quadruped robot driven by nonlinear oscillators with phase resetting. IEEE/ RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Taipei, 18-22 October 2010: 1915-1920.
 S. H. Park, Y. J. Lee. Turning gait planning of a quadruped walking robot with an articulated spine. Proceeding of the ICCAS, 25-27 August 2004: 1926-1930.
 S.-H. Park, D.-S. Kim and Y.-J. Lee. Discontinuous spinning gait of a quad-ruped walking robot with waist-joint. Proceeding of International Con-ference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2005: 2744-2749.
 M. A. Lewis, M. R. Bunting, B. Salemi, et al. Toward ultra high speed locomotors: Design and test of a cheetah robot hind limb. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Shanghai, 9-13 May 2011: 1990-1996.
 T. Masuda, H. Kimura and K. Takase. Emergence of a quadru- ped bound gait as interaction among the brain, body and envi- ronment. SICE Annual Conference, Tokyo, 20-22 August 2008: 2501-2506.
 S. Rutishauser, A. Sprowitz, L. Righetti, et al. Passive compliant quadruped robot using central pattern generators for locomotion control. IEEE/RAS-EMBS International Conference on Biome- dical Robotics and Biomecha-tronics Scottsdale, Arizona, 19-22 October 2008: 710-715.
 F. Wyffels, M. D’Haene, T. Waegeman, et al. Realization of a passive compliant robot dog. IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics, To- kyo, 26-29 September 2010: 882-886.
 S. Talebi, M. Buehler and E. Papadopoulos. To-wards dynamic step climbing for a quadruped robot with compliant legs. Inter- national Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots, Madrid, 2-4 October 2000: 441-446.
 J. A. Smith, I. Poulakakis. Rotary gallop in the untethered quad- ruped robot scout II. Proceedings of IEEE IRSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Sys-tems, 2004: 556-2561.
 I. Poulakakis, J. A. Smith and M. Buehler. Modeling and experi- ments of untethered quadruped running with a bounding gait: The scout II robot. The International Journal of Robot-ics Re- search, 2005, 24(4): 239-256.
 X. Wang, M. T. Li, P. F. Wang, et al. Running and turning con- trol of a quadruped robot with compliant legs in bounding gait. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Shanghai International Conference Center, 2011: 511-518.
 曾翔宇, 鄂明成, 李冬冬等. 沟壑类非连续地形下的四足机器人运动控制[J]. 机器人, 2011, 33(6): 700-705.
 M. Nordin, V. H. Frankel, 著. 邝适存, 郭霞, 译. 肌肉骨骼系统基础生物力学(第3版)[M]. 北京: 人民卫生出版社, 2008.
 多恩等, 著. 林德贵, 陈耀星, 译. 犬猫解剖学彩色图谱[M]. 沈阳: 辽宁科学技术出版社, 2007.
 郑浩俊, 张秀丽等. 足式机器人生物控制方法与应用[M]. 北京: 清华大学出版社, 2011: 2-5.