The Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Unconscious Goal Pursuit
Abstract: Much of contemporary psychology has come to recognize that a great deal of human functioning is rooted in unconscious processes as well—that is, those processes that do not require conscious control. According to the goal auto-motive model, the goal representation can become capable of automatic activation. The researchers have discussed a mechanism for unconscious goal pursuit and demonstrated that the activated goal can lead people to prepare feasible actions that make the goal attainable and evaluate the value of the activated goal unconsciously. The factors that influence the goal pursuit may be the representations of significant others, the positive affect, the individual’s susceptibility differences, own implicit attitude, and skills about the unconscious goal pursuit.
文章引用: 陈瑞涵 , 杨文静 , 李海江 , 张庆林 (2013) 无意识目标追求的发生机制及影响因素。 心理学进展， 3， 22-27. doi: 10.12677/AP.2013.31004
 马丽丽, 郭永玉(2008). 无意识目标: 激活与追求. 心理科学进展, 16期, 919-925.
 彭贺, 徐千里(2010). 无意识工作激励: 定义、模型及展望. 心理科学进展, 18期, 963-970.
 Aarts, H., Custers, R., & Marien, H. (2008). Preparing and motivating behavior outside of awareness. Science, 319, 1639.
 Aarts, H., Custers, R., & Veltkamp, M. (2008). Goal priming and the affective-motivational route to nonconscious goal pursuit. Social Cognition, 26, 555-577.
 Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2000). Habits as knowledge structures: Automaticity in goal-directed behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 53-63.
 Aarts, H., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Hassin, R. R. (2004). Goal contagion: Perceiving is for pursuing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 23-37.
 Bargh, J. A. (1990). Auto-motives: Preconscious determinants of social interaction. In E.T. Higgins, & R.M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition (Vol. 2, pp. 93-130). New York: Guilford.
 Bargh, J. A. (2006). What have we been priming all these years? On the development, mechanisms, and ecology of nonconscious social behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 147-168.
 Bargh, J. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., Lee-Chai, A., Barndollar, K., & Trtschel, R. (2001). The automated will: Nonconscious activation and pursuit of behavioral goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1014-1027.
 Bargh, J. A., & Morsella, E. (2008). The unconscious mind. Perspec- tives on Psychological Science, 3, 73-79.
 Bargh, J. A., & Morsella, E. (2010). Unconscious behavioral guidance systems. In C. Agnew, D. Carlston, W. Graziano, & J. Kelly (Eds.), Then a miracle occurs: Focusing on behavior in social psychology- cal theory and research (pp. 89-118). New York: Oxford University Press.
 Capa, R. L., Cleeremans, A., Bustin, G. M., Bouquet, C. A., & Han- senne, M. (2011). Effects of subliminal priming on nonconscious goal pursuit and effort-related cardiovascular response. Social Cog- nition, 29, 430-444.
 Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1981). Attention and self-regulation: A control-theory approach to human behavior. New York: Springer- Verlag.
 Chartrand, T. L., Dalton, A. N., & Fitzsimons, G. J. (2007). Noncon- scious relationship reactance: When significant others prime oppos- ing goals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 719-726.
 Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2005). Positive affect as implicit motivator: On the nonconscious operation of behavioral goals. Journal of Per- sonality and Social Psychology, 89, 129-142.
 Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2007). In search of the nonconscious sources of goal pursuit: Accessibility and positive affective valence of the goal state. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 312-318.
 Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2010). The unconscious will: how the pursuit of goals operates outside of conscious awareness. Science, 329, 47- 50.
 Custers, R., Aarts, H., Oikawa, M., & Elliot, A. (2009). The noncom- scious road to perceptions of performance: Achievement priming augments outcome expectancies and experienced self-agency. Jour- nal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 1200-1208.
 De Houwer, J., Thomas, S., & Baeyens, F. (2001). Association learning of likes and dislikes: A review of 25 years of research on human evaluative conditioning. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 853-869.
 Engeser, S. (2009). Nonconscious activation of achievement goals: Moderated by word class and the explicit achievement motive? Swiss Journal of Psychology, 68, 193-218.
 Fazio, R. H., & Olson, M. A. (2003). Implicit measures in social cogni- tion research: Their meaning and use. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 297-327.
 Ferguson, M. J. (2007). On the automatic evaluation of end-states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 596-611.
 Ferguson, M. J. (2008). On becoming ready to pursue a goal you don’t know you have: Effects of nonconscious goals on evaluative readi- ness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1268-1294.
 Ferguson, M. J., & Bargh, J. A. (2004). Liking is for doing: The effects of goal pursuit on automatic evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 557-572.
 Fitzsimons, G. M., & Bargh, J. A. (2003). Thinking of you: Noncon- scious pursuit of interpersonal goals associated with relationship partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 148-164.
 Fishbach, A., Shah, J. Y., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2004). Emotional transfer in goal systems. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 723-738.
 Fishbach, A., & Trope, Y. (2005). The substitutability of external con- trol and self-control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 256-270.
 Haynes, J. D., Sakai, K., Rees, G., Gilbert, S., Frith, C., & Passingham, R. E. (2007). Reading hidden intentions in the human brain. Current Biology, 17, 323-328.
 Janiszewski, C., & van Osselaer, S. M. J. (2005). Behavior activation is not enough. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 15, 218-224.
 Kay, A. C., Wheeler, S. C., Bargh, J. A., & Ross, L. (2004). Material priming: The influence of mundane physical objects on situational construal and competitive behavioral choice. Organizational Behav- ior and Human Decision Processes, 95, 83-96.
 Lau, H. C., & Passingham, R. E. (2007). Unconscious activation of the cognitive control system in the human prefrontal cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 5805-5811.
 Libet, B. (2004). Mind time: The temporal factor in consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
 Morsella, E., & Bargh, J. A. (2011). Unconscious action tendencies: Sources of “un-intergrated” action. In J. Decety, & J. T. Cacioppo (Eds.), Handbook of social neuroscience (pp. 335-347). New York: Oxford University Press.
 Schultz, W. (2006). Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 87-115.
 Shah, J. Y. (2003a). Automatic for the people: How representations of significant others implicitly affect goal pursuits. Journal of Person- ality & Social Psychology, 84, 661-681.
 Shah, J. Y. (2003b). The motivational looking glass: How significant others implicitly affect goal appraisals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 424-439.
 Shah, J. Y., Friedman, R., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2002). Forgetting all else: On the antecedents and consequences of goal shielding. Jour- nal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1261-1280.
 Shantz, A., & Latham, G. P. (2009). An exploratory field experiment of the effect of subconscious and conscious goals on employee per- formance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 109, 9-17.
 Soon, C. S., Brass, M., Heinze, H. J., & Haynes, J. D. (2008). Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain. Nature Neuroscience, 11, 543-545.
 Stajkovic, A. D., Locke, E. A., & Blair, E. S. (2006). A first examina- tion of the relationships between primed subconscious goals, assign- ed conscious goals, and task performance. Journal of Applied Psych- ology, 91, 1172-1180.
 Aarts, H., Custers, R., & Holland, R. W. (2007). The nonconscious cessation of goal pursuit: When goals and negative affect are coactivated. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 165-178.