主要农作物芽期耐盐性比较研究
Comparison of Salinity Tolerence among Main Crops at Germination Stage

作者: 陈宗金 , 杨继书 :江苏省农业科学院粮食作物研究所;南京农业大学农学院; 蔡士宾 , 张巧凤 , 吴纪中 , 蒋彦婕 , 颜伟 , 吴小有 :南京农业大学农学院;

关键词: 作物耐盐性相对发芽率Crop Salinity The Relative Germination Rate

摘要:

为了开发利用沿海滩涂资源,为滩涂地区农作物布局提供参考信息,本实验以小麦、高粱、水稻、油菜、青菜、大豆、绿豆和芝麻等8种作物,每种作物随机挑选5个品种()为试验材料,采用芽期发芽鉴定法研究了5种盐浓度(0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%)胁迫下不同作物不同品种之间相对发芽率的变化。以各作物半致死浓度的大小作为作物耐盐性强弱的标准。结果表明,随着盐浓度的升高,相对发芽率明显下降,不同盐浓度处理间相对发芽率的差异均达显著水(P < 0.01)。不同作物之间差异显著,绿豆耐盐性最高,其半致死盐浓度为1.9%,小麦、油菜次之,为1.2%左右;水稻半致死盐浓度最低(0.84%)。半致死盐浓度下,除大豆外,各作物不同品种之间差异极显著(P < 0.001),且遗传力均在68.8%~94.9%之间。因此,可以通过初步耐盐性鉴定,从绿豆、油菜、小麦等耐盐性较好的作物中筛选强耐盐品种在沿海地区推广种植。同时,耐盐种质可以作为作物耐盐性育种亲本以及遗传研究利用。

To compare salinity tolerance among different crops, eight main crops planted in Jiangsu costal areas, including wheat,sorghum, rice, rape oil seed, green vegetables, soybean, mung bean, sesame, with 5 genotypes for each crop, were used as the experimental materials to study the change of the relative germina- tion rate under the condition of the salinity stresses (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% NaCl). Semi-lethal NaCl concentration was considered to be the criterion for salinity tolerance screening among different crops. The results showed that the relative germination rates (RGR) were significant decreasing with the increase of NaCl concentration. There were significant differences in RGR among NaCl concentrations and among crops. Of all the test crops, mung bean has the highest semi-lethal salt concentration (1.89%). Wheat and rape oils seed have the second highest semi-lethal salt concentration (1.20%). Rice was the most sensitive crop with only 0.84% of semi-lethal concentration. Furthermore there were a highly significant differences and rela- tively high heritability among different varieties in the same crop at semi-lethal salt concentrations (P < 0.001) except for soybean. Therefore, we can screen a large number of genotypes to explore salinity-tolerant germ- plasm which can be planted in the costal areas of Jiangsu Province. They should also be very useful in genetic improvement for salinity resistance.

 

文章引用: 陈宗金 , 蔡士宾 , 杨继书 , 张巧凤 , 吴纪中 , 蒋彦婕 , 颜伟 , 吴小有 (2012) 主要农作物芽期耐盐性比较研究。 农业科学, 2, 59-65. doi: 10.12677/HJAS.2012.24010

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