近半个世纪中国北方沙尘暴的空间分布和时间变化规律回顾
Spatial Distribution and Temporal Tendency of the Dust Storm Frequency in North and Northwest China for the Recent Nearly Half a Century

作者: 李万元 * , 吕世华 :中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所寒旱区陆面过程与气候变化重点实验室; 董治宝 :中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所沙漠与沙漠化重点实验室; 王式功 :兰州大学半干旱气候变化教育部重点实验室,兰州; 奥银焕 :中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所,寒旱区陆面过程与气候变化重点实验室,兰州;

关键词: 中国北方沙尘暴地理分布变化趋势地理、气候和环流成因 Dust Storms in China Geographic Distribution Variation Tendency Geographical Climatic and Circulation Factors

摘要: 特别是近10多年来,中外科学家对近半个世纪中国北方沙尘暴的地理分布和时间变化趋势作了大量工作,为了在借鉴前人成果的基础上更进一步把握现在和将来中国北方沙尘暴的发生、发展规律,本文就相关成果进行了详细的回顾、分析和总结:首先在气候意义上进一步阐明了我国沙尘暴发生频数、沙尘源区、爆发路径、传输路径、沉降区域等的地理分布状况及其形成的地表、气候和大气环流成因;然后总结了半个世纪以来我国沙尘暴的年际和年代际变化特征及其区域性差异,并就荒漠化、气候变化及环流演变三方面给出其可能的形成原因;最后提出几点沙尘暴预测和防治的建议。

Abstract: A lot of efforts have been done on the geographic distribution and temporal variation trend of the dust storm frequency in North and Northwest China during the last half century, especially since 10 or so years before. In order to further understand the occurrence and development regulations for dust storms in China in the near and far future based on the previous successes, this paper has aimed to review, analyze and summarize in detail those relevant achievements obtained by inland and abroad scientists. Firstly, the climatic geographical distributions of the happening frequency, sand and dust sources, outbreak way, transport route and deposition areas of dust storms in China have been further elu-cidated with their causes such as surface conditions, climatic factors and atmospheric circulations. Secondly, the yearly and decadal variation characteristics of the dust storm frequency in China and their differences from area to area have been summarized for the last half century or so, focusing on the desertification land, climate change and atmospheric circulation modification in North and Northwest China to explain all the involved phenomena; Finally, some sugges-tions have been given on the prediction and restriction of dust storm in China.

文章引用: 李万元 , 董治宝 , 吕世华 , 王式功 , 奥银焕 (2012) 近半个世纪中国北方沙尘暴的空间分布和时间变化规律回顾。 气候变化研究快报, 1, 1-12. doi: 10.12677/ccrl.2012.11001

参考文献

[1] X. F. Qiu, Y. Zeng and Q. L. Miao. Sand-dust storms in China: Tem-poral-spatial distribution and tracks of source lands. Journal of Geo-graphical Sciences, 2001, 11(3): 253-260.

[2] 钱正安, 宋敏红, 李万元. 近50年来中国北方沙尘暴的分布及变化趋势分析[J]. 中国沙漠, 2002, 22(2): 106-111.

[3] 钱正安, 蔡英, 刘景涛等. 中蒙地区沙尘暴研究的若干进展[J]. 地球物理学报, 2006, 49(1): 83-92.

[4] X. M. Fang, Y. X. Han, J. H. Ma, et al. Dust storms and loess accumulation on the Tibetan Plateau: A case study of dust event on 4 March 2003 in Lhasa. Chinese Science Bulletin, 2004, 49(9): 953-960.

[5] X. Liu, Z. Y. Yin, X. Zhang, et al. Analyses of the spring dust storm frequency of northern China in relation to antecedent and concurrent wind, precipitation, vegetation, and soil moisture con- ditions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2004, 109: D16210.

[6] Y. Shao, C. H. Dong. A review on East Asian dust storm climate, modeling and moni-toring. Global and Planetary Change, 2006, 52(1-4): 1-22.

[7] 周自江, 章国材. 中国北方的典型强沙尘暴事件(1954-2002)年[J]. 科学通报, 2003, 48(11): 1224-1228.

[8] 周自江, 王锡稳. 西北地区东部群发性强沙尘暴序列的建立与分析[J]. 地理学报, 2002, 57(4): 437-442.

[9] Y. Q. Wang, X. Y. Zhang, S. L. Gong, et al. Surface ob-servation of sand and dust storm in East Asia and its application in CUACE/ Dust. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion, 2007, 7(3): 9115-9138.

[10] A. Kara, K. Takeuchi. Yellow dust: An overview of research and felt needs. Journal of Arid Environments, 2004, 59(1): 167-187.

[11] J. Xuan, G. L. Liu and K. Du. Dust emission inventory in north- ern China. Atmospheric Environment, 2000, 34(26): 4565-4570.

[12] 孙建华, 赵琳娜, 赵思雄. 华北强沙尘暴的数值模拟及沙源分析[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2004, 9(1): 139-154。

[13] Y. Kurosaki, M. Mikami. Recent frequent dust events and their relation to surface wind in East Asia. Geophysical Research Letters, 2003, 30(14): 1736.

[14] 张高英, 赵思雄, 孙建华. 近年来强沙尘暴天气气候特征的分析研究[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2004, 9(1): 101-115.

[15] J. Sun, M. Zhang and T. Liu. Spatial and temporal characteristics of dust storms in China and its surrounding regions, 1960-1999: Relations to source area and climate. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2001, 106(D10): 10325-10333.

[16] B. Zhang, A. Tsunekawa and M. Tsubo. Contributions of sandy lands and stony deserts to long-distance dust emission in China and Mongolia during 2000-2006. Global and Plane-tary Change, 2007, 60(3-4): 487-504.

[17] 宋敏红, 钱正安, 蔡英等. 中蒙强、弱沙尘暴年春季平均环流及沙尘活动变化分析[J]. 气象学报, 2007, 1: 94-104.

[18] H. Yukari, I. Uno and Z. F. Wang. Long-term variation of Asian dust and related climate factors. Atmospheric Envi-ronment, 2006, 40(35): 6730-6740.

[19] 王式功, 王金艳, 周自江等. 中国沙尘天气的区域特征[J]. 地理学报, 2003, 58(2): 193-200.

[20] X. K. Xu, J. K. Levy, Z. H. Lin, et al. An investigation of sand- dust storm events and land surface characteristics in China using NOAA NDVI data. Global and Planetary Change, 2006, 52(1-4): 182-196.

[21] C. Z. Yan, Y. M. Zhou, X. Song, et al. Estimation of areas of sand and dust emission in the Hexi Corridor from a land cover database: An approach that combines remote sensing with GIS. Envi-ronmental Geology, 2009, 57(3): 707-713.

[22] 李万元, 吕世华, 沈志宝等. 中国北方10种主要土壤风蚀特征的数值模拟[J]. 高原气象, 2006, 25(增刊): 152-161.

[23] 刘景涛, 郑新江, 康玲等. 蒙古气旋爆发性发展导致的强沙尘暴个例研究[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2003, 8(2): 218-229.

[24] 张小玲, 宋敏红, 钱正安等. 2006年春季中蒙中、东区沙尘暴低层环流及变化初步分析[J]. 高原气象, 2006, 25(增刊): 77-84.

[25] 彭公炳, 黄玫, 钱步东等. 北太平洋海温场与我国西北地区春季沙尘暴的关系[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2004, 9(1): 174-181.

[26] 杨续超, 刘晓东. 中国北方强沙尘暴活动与亚洲地区对流层风场的联系[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2006, 11(1): 94-100.

[27] S. G. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Z. J. Zhou, et al. Regional characteris- tics of three kinds of dust storm events in China. Atmospheric Environment, 2005, 39(3): 509-520.

[28] 范一大, 史培军, 周俊华, 冀萌新. 近50年来中国沙尘暴变化趋势分析[J]. 自然灾害学报, 2005, 14(3): 22-28.

[29] 王革丽, 吕达仁. 尤莉浑善达克沙地沙尘暴气候特征分析[J]. 气候与环境研究, 2002, 7(4): 433-439.

[30] 丁瑞强, 王式功, 尚可政, 杨德保. 中国春季沙尘暴的趋势变化及年代际变化[J]. 高原气象, 2004, 23(5): 660-666.

[31] W. H. Qian, X. Tang and L. S. Quan. Regional characteristics of dust storms in China. Atmospheric Environment, 2004, 38: 4895- 4907.

[32] 王宁练, 姚檀栋, 羊向东等. 冰芯和湖泊沉积记录所反映的20世纪中国北方沙尘天气频率变化趋势[J]. 中国科学, 2007, 37(3D): 378-385.

[33] B. Yang, et al. Dust storm frequency and its relation to climate changes in Northern China during the past 1000 years. Atmos- pheric Environment, 2007, 41(40): 9288-9299.

[34] 尚可政, 董光荣, 王式功等. 我国北方沙区气候变化对全球变暖的响应[J]. 中国沙漠, 2001, 21(4): 387-392.

[35] S. L. Gong, X. Y. Zhang, T. L. Zhao, et al. Sensitivity of Asian dust storm to natural and anthropogenic factors. Geophysical Research Letters, 2004, 31: Article ID L07210.

[36] F. J. Xiao, C. P. Zhou and Y. M. Liao. Dust storms evolution in Taklimakan Desert and its correlation with climatic parameters. Journal of Geographical Science, 2008, 18(4): 415-424.

[37] N. Li, W. Gua, Z. X. Du, et al. Observation on soil water content and wind speed in Erlianhot, a dust-source area in north-ern China. Atmospheric Environment, 2006, 40(27): 5298-5303.

[38] 张仁健, 韩志伟, 王明星等. 中国沙尘暴天气的新特征及成因分析[J]. 第四纪研究, 2002, 22(4): 374-380.

分享
Top