﻿ 基于数理统计的煤矿区地下水化学特征及来源解析

# 基于数理统计的煤矿区地下水化学特征及来源解析Chemical Characteristics and Source Analysis of Groundwater in Coal Mining Area Based on Mathematical Statistics

Abstract: Hydrochemical composition and control factors were studied based on the analysis of 30 water samples in three aquifers (the fourth aquifer of loose layer, coal-bearing and limestone aquifer) to explore the water rock interaction and controlling factors in coal mine. The results showed that the hydrochemical types of the three aquifers are different; the main hydrochemical compositions of the fourth aquifer, coal-bearing aquifer, and limestone aquifer are Na-SO4-HCO3, Na-HCO3, and Na-SO4, respectively. The results of ion ratio, principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed that the hydrochemical composition of groundwater is controlled by the dissolution of soluble minerals and the weathering of silicate minerals, and the results of EPA Unmixmodel analysis also show that the chemical composition of coal-bearing aquifer water was mainly related to the weathering of silicate minerals and the dissolution of chloride minerals, while the chemical composition of fourth and limestone aquifer was mainly related to the dissolution of sulfate minerals.

1. 引言

2. 材料与方法

2.1. 研究区概况

2.2. 取样和分析

30个样品分别采集于钱营孜煤矿的巷道与观察井，四含、煤系与太灰样品数量分别为10、14、6。观察井采用自制的采样器采样，巷道中的水样则直接从水点采集，水样均经0.45 mm孔径的滤膜过滤后24小时内送到实验室分析，本次共测试了样品的常规水化学组成，主要为Na+ (由于K+测试浓度低，将Na+和K+共同以Na+表示)、Ca2+、Mg2+${\text{Cl}}^{-}$${\text{SO}}_{\text{4}}^{\text{2}-}$${\text{HCO}}_{\text{3}}^{-}$，其中Na+、Ca2+、Mg2+${\text{Cl}}^{-}$${\text{SO}}_{\text{4}}^{\text{2}-}$ 浓度以ICS-600和ICS-900离子色谱仪进行测试， ${\text{HCO}}_{\text{3}}^{-}$ 浓度以酸碱中和滴定法测试。所有的测试均在国家煤矿水害防治工程技术研究中心进行。数据分析主要用SPSS软件对数据进行处理，包括因子分析、聚类分析。以及使用EPA Unmix 6.0 软件对数据进行源解析。

Figure 1. Location of the study area

3. 结果与讨论

3.1. 常规离子含量

Table 1. Statistical analysis of the hydrochemical compositions of groundwater

Figure 2. Piper diagram of groundwater samples from the Qianyingzi coal mine

3.2. 离子比值分析

Figure 3. Study on ions correlation of groundwater samples in qianyingzi coal mine

3.3. 数理统计分析

3.3.1. 主成分分析

Table 2. Chemical principal component analysis of groundwater

Figure 4. Plots of factor scores

3.3.2. EPA Unmix模型分析

Unmix是计算地下水化学的源组成以及样品源贡献的模型，经过计算，模型共确定了2个来源(表3)，其Min Rsq = 0.95，Min Sig/Noise = 6.11，高于模型使用的最低标准，表明本文计算结果是有效的。

Table 3. Source compositions (mg/l) and proportions (%)

Figure 5. Source contributions in qianyingzi coalmine

3.3.3. 聚类分析

Figure 6. Result of Q-mode cluster analysis

Figure 7. Result of R-mode cluster analysis

4. 结论

1) 研究区四含主要水化学类型为Na-SO4-HCO3型，煤系主要水化学类型为Na-HCO3型，太灰主要水化学类型为Na-SO4型。三个含水层水化学类型有明显差异。

2) 离子比值、主成分分析和聚类分析结果表明，地下水水化学组成受方解石、白云石、石膏、石盐等可溶性矿物的溶解和硅酸盐矿物的风化作用控制。

3) 使用Unmix模型表明煤系水水化学组成可能与硅酸盐矿物的风化、氯盐矿物的溶解有关。而四含、太灰水化学组成可能是由硫酸盐矿物的溶解所引起的。

NOTES

*通讯作者。

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