基于发展系统理论的师幼关系模型
Teacher-Child Relationship Model Based on Development System Theory

作者: 扶跃辉 :上海师范大学天华学院,上海;

关键词: 发展系统理论师幼关系师幼互动Development System Theory Teacher-Child Relationship Teacher-Child Interaction

摘要:
师幼关系是教师与幼儿之间的基本人际关系,也是儿童社会化过程中的重要社会关系之一,直接关系到幼儿的健康成长。发展系统理论为师幼关系的发展提供了概念框架,用于理解个人或者情境的影响因素。本文从发展系统理论出发阐述师幼关系的影响因素,包括影响系统的外部因素、教师和幼儿的个体特征及相互作用和师幼之间的互动等,并对未来的研究方向进行展望。

Abstract: Teacher-child relationship is the basic interpersonal relationship between teachers and children, and also one of the important social relations in the process of children's socialization, which is directly related to the healthy growth of children. Development system theory provides a conceptual framework for the development of teacher-child relationship, which is used to understand the influence factors of individual or situation. Based on the development system theory, this paper ex-pounds the influencing factors of the relationship between teachers and children, including the external influences on systems, features of individuals and their interaction, and the interactive teacher-child exchanges, and looks forward to the future research direction.

1. 引言

师幼关系是教师与幼儿之间的基本人际关系,也是儿童社会化过程中的重要社会关系之一,直接关系到幼儿的健康成长 [1]。师幼关系中的亲密性反映了教师与幼儿关系的开放性、温暖性和安全性程度,亲密的师幼关系一方面可以为教师提供成长动力,让他们花更多的时间和精力支持幼儿,同时也更有助于幼儿的学校适应、社会–情感能力的提升以及将来学业方面取得成功 [2] [3]。师幼关系的冲突性是师幼互动的消极、不和谐、不可预测和令人不快的程度。师幼之间冲突性越高,幼儿问题行为越多,亲社会行为减少,被同伴排斥,也较少参与社会活动 [4] [5]。对师幼关系进行研究有助于揭示幼儿与教师人际关系的本质,并为建立良好适宜的师幼关系提供必要的理论支持 [6]。解释师幼关系的理论包括依恋理论、发展系统理论、社会动机理论和人际关系理论等,目前研究者趋向于采用更广泛、整合的理论来理解师幼关系。发展系统理论为师幼关系提供了理论框架,强调师幼关系根植于多元的系统中,每个水平,包括个体、家庭、幼儿园以及社区的因素,都会对关系过程产生动态的、交互的影响 [7]。发展系统理论对师幼关系的研究由单纯的相关研究发展至更复杂的长期追踪分析,在设计中控制了幼儿和教师的特征,并且考虑了幼儿行为和教师特征的交互作用。本文从发展系统理论出发阐述师幼关系的影响因素,并对未来的研究方向进行展望。

2. 发展系统理论的主要观点

发展系统理论(DST, Developmental System Theory)出现于20世纪90年代,建立在早期发展系统观点的基础上。发展系统理论的核心是发展情境论和动态互动论,发展情境论把发展看作是多个层面进行的过程,聚焦不同层面之间的相互作用;动态互动论认为交互作用是一个持续的过程,在这个过程中,相互作用的因素也发生了变化 [8]。

发展系统理论中有以下主要观点:人–环境系统(Person-environment systems):人与环境是一个完整的系统,人与环境也包含子系统,包括个体层次的子系统(如生物、认知、情感)以及环境层面的子系统(如人际关系、物理环境、社会制度);交互作用(Transactional approach):人与环境的子系统通过双向、互为因果的过程相互影响;或然渐成论(Probabilistic epigenesis):一个因素的存在或不存在都会使个体的发展结果或多或少地成为可能,而不是确定;时间作为情境(Time as context):所有层次的人与环境系统在不同的时间维度上运行;人类发展的多样性(Diversity in human development):个人的发展路径和结果各不相同,因为人–环境系统包含多个层次以及这些层次上交互作用的复杂性 [9]。

3. 发展系统理论下师幼关系的影响因素

根据发展系统理论,皮亚塔提出师幼关系的概念模型,师幼关系受到三个因素的影响:a) 影响系统的外部因素;b) 教师和幼儿的个体特征及相互作用;c) 师幼之间的互动 [10]。

3.1. 影响系统的外部因素

影响师幼关系的环境因素包括幼儿的家庭环境、教师和家长的关系,幼儿园环境提供的支持等,这些因素对师幼关系的影响相比幼儿的个性特征更为重要 [11]。

家庭环境,是影响师幼关系的重要因素。研究表明亲子关系的质量能影响师幼关系的质量,父母与子女的关系为儿童提供了与其他成年人交往的指导 [12] [13]。亲子互动,尤其是涉及解释和指导支持的互动,对儿童的认知发展尤为重要。积极的亲子互动有助于孩子在系统、有意义的环境中学习和实践新的社会认知技能,有助于幼儿学会有效地与他人互动。温暖、有指导性的亲子互动促进幼儿独立性、社会责任感、学业成就的发展,幼儿的攻击性水平更低,社会情绪能力更高 [14] [15]。通过亲子之间的冲突,父母为幼儿提供如何适应社会的方式,例如怎样解决问题和化解冲突 [16]。但是父母在亲子冲突中的消极行为会给幼儿提供一个错误的互动表征,从而增加儿童在课堂上表现外化行为的可能性 [17]。

幼儿园环境,包括幼儿园质量等级、性质,以及课堂管理的质量也是影响师幼关系的重要因素。研究发现幼儿园质量等级和幼儿园性质对师幼关系中的亲密得分有显著影响,一级幼儿园和公办幼儿园教师的师幼关系亲密度明显优于二级幼儿园和民办幼儿园 [18]。Varghese等(2019)在控制了儿童和教师水平特征后,发现加强课堂管理的质量导致师幼之间的冲突性显著降低 [19]。

研究者把师幼关系看成发展问题,不仅要研究它与其他发展问题的联系,还应考虑儿童在特定社会文化环境中面临的挑战。目前,儿童越来越多地通过社交媒体建立联系,这种联系不仅会影响学校的学业学习,而且可能会产生更广泛的发展和社会影响,同时对师幼关系也会产生影响 [20]。社会文化环境如何影响师幼关系,需要在以后的研究中引起注意。

3.2. 教师和幼儿的个体特征及其相互作用

教师和幼儿的个体特征包括生物因素,如性别;生物过程,如气质;发展过程,如人格、自尊、社会技能等。

研究发现教师的特征相比儿童的特征更能解释师幼关系 [21]。教师的受教育程度和工作年限、教师敏感性、教师的工作压力(家长与教师的关系、培训程度、组织的支持)、教师的情绪状态(抑郁水平,自我效能感,依恋历史等)都对师幼关系有影响 [22] [23] [24] [25]。Buyse等 (2011)的研究表明,在教师敏感度较低的情况下,母子关系和师幼关系质量中存在连续性,而在教师敏感度较高的条件下,则存在不连续性。教师的高敏感性可以在一定程度上弥补早期依恋历史对幼儿攻击性行为的影响 [26]。教师的信念和对儿童及其角色的感知相比教师的经验更可能在课堂上与幼儿形成支持性关系 [27]。教师每天在课堂上做出的决定不仅基于他们对儿童的看法,而且取决于他们自己的信念、价值观、成为好孩子的观念、对幼儿行为的期望以及他们与幼儿的互动。当幼儿进入教室,老师希望他们具备一定的技能,这将使他们能够适应学校环境所带来的学术和社会需求,例如解决问题和人际关系的能力 [28]。刘俊生等(2018)的研究结果显示,随着时间的推移,儿童害羞预期师幼亲密程度也会逐渐降低,可能的原因是,家长和教师认为害羞不再是积极的品质,学校对害羞儿童的支持似乎相比过去要少得多 [29]。

幼儿的特征包括幼儿的性别、年龄、学业能力、社会技能、问题行为和气质等,也影响师幼关系的质量。幼儿的气质特点是影响师幼关系质量的重要因素,研究发现幼儿气质特征中的反应性、坚持性和分心性最影响师幼关系的质量 [30]。教师的行为与他们所教儿童的气质有关,孩子是否有易相处的性格(顺从、社交性强、坚持)或难相处的性格特征(性格孤僻或反应慢),可以被视为师幼关系的预测因素。儿童气质对师幼关系的影响,可能的原因是教师倾向于与脾气较好的孩子保持更积极的交流,有时还会在不知不觉中奖励那些具有积极特征的孩子,比如和这些孩子有更积极的互动,更多表扬、更少的批评和更具指导性的教学 [31]。

教师和幼儿的特征也会产生交互作用,进而对师幼关系产生影响。例如教师职业倦怠负向预测师生关系质量,并与幼儿外化行为相互作用,负向预测师幼关系的质量。教师的职业倦怠和幼儿的外化行为过高,这似乎是师幼冲突性的双重来源。职业倦怠高的教师很容易因幼儿的攻击性行为变得沮丧,难以调节自身的消极情绪,这些教师也可能无法耐心对待所有儿童,导致师幼关系质量降低 [32]。

3.3. 师幼之间的互动

Sameroff和MacKenzie (2003)提出了“交互作用模型(transactional model)”,即儿童的变化和变化的环境之间的相互作用 [33]。儿童的特征和学校环境如果匹配,儿童更可能适应学校的生活;如果儿童的特点和学校环境之间的不匹配,那么这种不一致可能导致儿童的学校适应性较差,以及更多的消极行为。

师幼互动是否影响师幼关系的质量,Hartz等(2017)探讨了学前儿童课堂互动与师幼关系之间的关系,结果表明,幼儿课堂互动的状况与师幼关系存在显著的相关,当幼儿努力接近教师、与教师分享积极的情感、发起和维持与教师的对话时,师幼关系更为亲密;当幼儿积极参与活动、热情并遵循教师指示、保持专注和自立时,师幼关系更为亲密。当幼儿表现出攻击性和破坏性行为、消极情感、不遵从教师指示、与老师和同伴对抗等,教师报告的师幼冲突性更高 [34]。该研究的结果为皮亚塔提出的师幼关系概念模型提供了实证依据,且从多角度测评师幼关系,对师幼互动进行独立观察,有助于把教师的个人看法与从独立的、外部的角度观察课堂上发生的事件分开。但是该研究只是相关研究,不能从儿童互动与教师对师生关系认知变化之间的关系来推断因果关系,为了解决这一局限性,未来的研究可以采用实验设计来检验儿童课堂行为与师幼关系之间的因果关系。

4. 结语及未来研究的方向

4.1. 整合多种理论解释师幼关系

理论界整合了发展系统理论与依恋理论以更好地理解亲子关系与师幼关系的一致性。非安全依恋的孩子相比安全依恋的孩子拥有更低的师幼关系质量,亲子关系和师幼关系的中等相关,意味着幼儿的其它特征或教师的特征将影响、调整或加强这种联系。教师的敏感性程度将改变孩子的内部工作模型,修改孩子之前的关系心理表征 [26] 与发展系统理论相应,拥有高敏感度的教师在教室创设了情感支持的环境,有助于积极的师幼关系的发展。Verschueren (2015)认为,要研究师幼关系的本质,还需要整合多种理论。例如,动机理论强调其它关系维度的重要性,如结构或自主性支持;人际关系理论指出了课堂上师生互动的重要性。通过整合多种理论观点,我们对师幼关系的理解可能会获得更大的进步 [35]。

4.2. 设计长期追踪的研究

师幼关系的复杂性不仅仅需要多种理论来解释,也需要设计长期追踪的研究以澄清因果关系,包括交互的过程。因为幼儿的特征,包括行为倾向、关系历史、学业技能,以及其他技能影响他们与老师的关系。发展系统理论探讨了多种因素的交互作用和影响,未来的研究还需考虑社会文化对师幼关系的影响。

4.3. 提高师幼关系质量的干预方案

由于师幼关系在幼儿成长与发展中的重要作用,因此,各种旨在提高师幼关系质量的干预方案也就应运而生。在已有的干预方案中,大都集中在改善教师对师幼关系的心理表征或互动技巧上,不仅可以提升师幼关系的质量,而且改善幼儿的问题行为。较有成效的干预方案主要包括:“聚焦关系反思”(RFRP, Relationship-Focused Reflection Program)、“我的教学伙伴”(MTP, My Teaching Partner)、“两个关键点的教学”(KEY2TEACH)以及“储蓄时间”(Banking Time)等 [36] [37] [38] [39]。研究者和教育主管部门应该开展师幼互动的职前和职后培训,为教师提供关于师幼互动的指导和咨询,使得教师在师幼互动中创造积极的社会和情绪氛围,并反思自己在环境中与幼儿的互动。

基金项目

2017上海教育科研课题一般项目,基于发展系统理论的师幼关系模型创建及其对幼儿社会行为影响的研究,课题号C17048。

文章引用: 扶跃辉 (2020) 基于发展系统理论的师幼关系模型。 教育进展, 10, 917-923. doi: 10.12677/AE.2020.106151

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