要义提示类型对不同学科领域知识水平中学生 错误记忆的影响
The Kinds of Gist Features as Cues Have Different Influences on False Memory among Different Levels of Disciplinary Domain Knowledge Students

作者: 蔡笑岳 , 张维 , 张晓文 :;

关键词: 共性要义提示非共性要义提示学科领域知识水平错误记忆Common Gist Feature Non-Common Gist FEature Levels of Disciplinary Domain Knowledge False Memory

摘要: 应用DRM范式,通过两个实验探讨不同要义提示对不同学科领域知识水平中学生错误记忆的影响。实验一提示识记材料的共同要义,考察共性要义对不同学科领域知识水平学生错误记忆的影响;实验二提示独特要义,考察非共性要义对两者错误记忆的影响。结果显示:1) 共性要义提示显著增加学生的错误记忆,非共性要义提示则有明显的削弱作用。2) 共性要义提示下,高学科领域知识水平组的关键诱词虚报率显著低于低学科领域知识水平组且前者对关键诱词的反应更快。3) 两种提示条件下,高、低学科领域知识水平学生的已学词击中率差异明显,但两组学生前后两次已学词击中率均无明显变化,而关键诱词的虚报率则变化明显。结果表明,增强识记材料要义特征的清晰性,有助降低错误记忆的发生;错误记忆效应受到学生的学科领域知识水平影响;对特定学科知识的真实记忆和错误记忆可能存在着两种不同的表征形式。

Abstract: In this present study, the DRM paradigm was applied to two experiments to investigate how gist features were affecting false memory among the students with high and low levels of disciplinary domain knowledge. In experiment 1, we presented a list of chemical nouns that appears in Chinese terms and examined the effects of common gist features (prompting all the chemical terms contained with oxygen elements) of the chemical terms memory materials on false memory between high and low levels of disciplinary domain knowledge. In experiment 2, we investigated how the non-common gist features (prompting the chemical ex- pressions corresponded with chemical terms memory materials) influenced false memory between two groups. The result showed, 1) Presenting common gist features to subjects increased their false memory while the non-common ones reduced the emergency of false memory. 2) When common gist features were provided, subjects with high level of disciplinary domain knowledge had significantly less false alarm rates and shorter reaction time on critical lures than those with lower level. 3) Hit rates for targets of high and low level groups had significant differences under the two conditions. However, there were inconspicuous differences when compared the variation of hit rates under two gist features conditions while the variation of false alarm rates of critical lures was in the contrary. The result indicated that heightening the clarity of gist feature helps to reduce false memory and it is affected by the levels of disciplinary domain knowledge. For the true and false memory of specific disciplinary domain knowledge, there may be two different forms of representations: True memory activates the semantic information via phonological information in order to bring about the information gai- ning fluency, representing both phonological and semantic information, and is easily affected by the subjects’ levels of disciplinary domain knowledge, while false memory is the direct gaining fluency of semantic in- formation and is easily affected by the clarity of visual cues.

文章引用: 蔡笑岳 , 张维 , 张晓文 (2011) 要义提示类型对不同学科领域知识水平中学生 错误记忆的影响。 心理学进展, 1, 119-126. doi: 10.12677/ap.2011.13018

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