﻿ 基于AHP-可拓物元公交服务质量评价

# 基于AHP-可拓物元公交服务质量评价Quality Evaluation of Public Transport Service Based on AHP-Extensible Matter Element

Abstract: Evaluation of public transport service quality is one of the important links to effectively improve the attractiveness of urban ground public transportation. In this paper, a bus service quality evaluation method based on AHP-extension matter element was proposed. According to the hierarchical analysis of urban road bus service quality indicators, three levels of line network planning, route layout and operation services were selected as the criterion layer; 8 main evaluation indicators were selected as the indicator layer. And the service quality evaluation indicator system was established. Using analytic hierarchy process and expert survey method, the weights of the criterion layer and the indicator layer were determined. Then, using the idea of extension matter element, the quality of public transportation service was evaluated. Finally, Guilin is taken as an example to evaluate service quality. The comprehensive evaluation level of the public transport service quality in Guilin has been third. The three criteria layers for line network planning, route layout and operation services have been second, second and third. Then, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to verify the results and determine the reliability of the results. According to the evaluation results, it can be seen that the quality of public transportation services in Guilin is average and needs further improvement. And according to the evaluation level of each criterion layer, we can focus on optimization from the aspect of operation service.

1. 引言

2. 服务质量评价方法

2.1. 层次分析法

1) 递阶层次结构的建立

2) 建立两两相比较的判断矩阵

$BW={\eta }_{\mathrm{max}}w$ (1)

3) 运用公式进行单排序权向量的一致性检验

$CI=\frac{{\eta }_{\mathrm{max}}-n}{n-1}$ (2)

$CR=\frac{CI}{RI}$ (3)

$CR<\text{0}\text{.1}$ 时，一致性可行。

4) 总排序权向量的一致性检验

${\sum }_{\text{i=1}}^{q}{\sum }_{j=1}^{p}{a}_{j}{b}_{i}^{j}=1$ (4)

$CI={\sum }_{j=1}^{p}{a}_{j}C{I}_{j}$ (5)

$RI={\sum }_{j=1}^{p}{a}_{j}R{I}_{j}$ (6)

$CR=\frac{CI}{RI}$ (7)

$CR<\text{0}\text{.1}$ 时，判断矩阵的一致性可行。否则，需要对矩阵B进行适当调整，直到满足条件。

2.2. 可拓物元法

1) 确定物元

$R=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}N& {c}_{1}& {x}_{1}\\ & {c}_{2}& {x}_{2}\\ & ⋮& ⋮\\ & {c}_{n}& {x}_{n}\end{array}\right]$ (8)

2) 确定经典率

$R=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{N}_{j}& {c}_{1}& {x}_{j1}\\ & {c}_{2}& {x}_{j2}\\ & ⋮& ⋮\\ & {c}_{n}& {x}_{jn}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{N}_{j}& {c}_{1}& 〈{a}_{j1},{b}_{j1}〉\\ & {c}_{2}& 〈{a}_{j2},{b}_{j2}〉\\ & ⋮& ⋮\\ & {c}_{n}& 〈{a}_{jn},{b}_{jn}〉\end{array}\right]$ (9)

3) 确定节域

${R}_{p}=\left(P\text{,}{c}_{i},{x}_{pi}\right)=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}P& {c}_{1}& {x}_{P1}\\ & {c}_{2}& {x}_{P2}\\ & ⋮& ⋮\\ & {c}_{n}& {x}_{Pn}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{N}_{j}& {c}_{1}& 〈{a}_{P1},{b}_{P1}〉\\ & {c}_{2}& 〈{a}_{P2},{b}_{P2}〉\\ & ⋮& ⋮\\ & {c}_{n}& 〈{a}_{Pn},{b}_{Pn}〉\end{array}\right]$ (10)

4) 确定关联函数

${K}_{j}\left({x}_{i}\right)=\left\{\begin{array}{l}\frac{-\rho \left({x}_{i},{x}_{ji}\right)}{|{x}_{ji}|}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{x}_{i}\notin {x}_{ji}\\ \frac{\rho \left({x}_{i},{x}_{ji}\right)}{\rho \left({x}_{i},{x}_{pi}\right)-\rho \left({x}_{i},{x}_{ji}\right)}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{x}_{i}\in {x}_{ji}\end{array}$ (11)

$\rho \left({x}_{i},{x}_{ji}\right)=|{x}_{i}-\frac{{a}_{ji}+{b}_{ji}}{2}|-\frac{{b}_{ji}-{a}_{ji}}{2}$ (12)

$\rho \left({x}_{i},{x}_{pi}\right)=|{x}_{i}-\frac{{a}_{pi}+{b}_{pi}}{2}|-\frac{{b}_{pi}-{a}_{pi}}{2}$ (13)

5) 确定权重系数

6) 确定关联度评价等级

${k}_{j}\left({P}_{0}\right)=\underset{i=1}{\overset{n}{\sum }}{w}_{ij}{k}_{j}\left({x}_{i}\right)$ (14)

${K}_{j}=\mathrm{max}{k}_{j}\left({p}_{0}\right)$ (15)

3. 公交服务质量评价指标体系

3.1. 评价指标选取

Table 1. Evaluation index system of public transport service quality

3.2. 基于AHP确定评价指标的权重

3.2.1. 准则层权重确定

Table 2. Summary table of weights at criterion level

3.2.2. 指标层权重确定

Table 3. Index layer weight summary table

Table 4. Summary table of weights of various indicators

4. 实例应用

4.1. 桂林市公交线网情况

Table 5. The current status of various indicators in Guilin

4.2. 基于AHP-可拓物元综合评价

Table 6. Suggested values of each index test interval in Guilin

Table 7. List of each index section domain, classic domain, and material element to be tested

Table 8. Guilin city public transport criteria index weight values and related values

Table 9. Guilin city public transport service quality evaluation index weight values and related values

4.3. 结果验证

1) 确定评价因素集：

2) 确定确定建立评判集：并给出不同的分指，具体情况见表10

Table 10. Score table of judgment

3) 确定权重：运用3.3.2中得到的权重值进行计算。

4) 确定模糊矩阵：

Table 11. Expert questionnaire evaluation index evaluation value table

${B}_{1}={W}_{1}\cdot {R}_{1}=\left(0.3553,0.311,0.142,0.194\right)\cdot \left[\begin{array}{ccccc}0.\text{6}& 0.\text{3}& 0.1& 0& 0\\ \text{0}\text{.3}& 0.4& 0.\text{1}& 0.1& 0\\ 0.1& 0.3& 0.4& 0.1& 0.1\\ 0.\text{3}& 0.4& 0.2& 0.\text{1}& 0\end{array}\right]$

${B}_{\text{1}}=\left(\text{0}\text{.390,0}\text{.361,0}\text{.167,0}\text{.067,0}\text{.014}\right)$

${F}_{\text{1}}={B}_{1}×{N}^{T}=\text{85}\text{.46}$

${F}_{3}={B}_{3}×{N}^{T}=\text{75}\text{.06}$

$F=B×{N}^{T}=\text{81}\text{.58}$

5. 结语

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