卫星跟踪的东方白鹳秋季迁徙路线研究
Study on the Migration Route of Oriental White Stork in Autumn Tracked by Satellite

作者: 彭 文 , 李晓民 :东北林业大学野生动物与自然保护地学院,黑龙江 哈尔滨; 朱宝光 , 董树斌 , 李 冰 :黑龙江洪河国家级自然保护区,黑龙江 佳木斯;

关键词: 东方白鹳卫星跟踪迁徙路线中途停歇地Oriental Whitestork Satellite Tracking Migration Route Stopover

摘要:

2015年9月1日至2015年12月31日期间,在东方白鹳(Ciconia boyciana)的人工招引繁殖地,为8只东方白鹳佩戴了卫星跟踪器,其中,6只完成了2015年的秋季迁徙,卫星跟踪结果显示,有三只东方白鹳的越冬地位于中国江西省的鄱阳湖,两只位于黄河三角洲保护区,一只位于江西赣江沿岸。繁殖地位于黑龙江以及乌苏里江沿岸,重要中途停歇地有辽河口保护区、曹妃甸湿地、北大港湿地、黄河三角洲保护区和嫩江沿岸;鄱阳湖保护区是东方白鹳的最主要越冬地。6只东方白鹳秋季迁徙路线基本相同,但迁徙路线并不重叠。2015年秋季迁徙距离为(2968.3 ± 507.5) km;迁徙时间为(48.1 ± 13.3) d;停歇时间为(38.1 ± 12.3) d;中途停歇地数量为(6 ± 1.8);重要中途停歇地数量为(18.5 ± 5.7);最大飞行高度为(1743.8 ± 303.1) m。东方白鹳采取不同的迁徙路线飞越渤海湾。穿过渤海湾可以大大缩短迁徙时间,但是仅有一只东方白鹳选择穿过渤海湾;东方白鹳迁徙过程主要的山脉阻碍是长白山脉和燕山山脉。

Abstract: From September 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015, at the Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana) artificial attract breeding grounds, eight Oriental white storks weared only a satellite tracker, and among them, six finished the precess of the fall migration in 2015, according to the results of satellite tracking, three only Oriental white storks wintering areas located in Poyang Lake of Jiangxi Province, China, two ones in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, one in thelittoral of Jiangxi gan River. The breeding sites were located along the coast of Heilongjiang and Wusuli river, with important stopover sites including Liaohekou Protected Resreve, Caofeidian Wetland, Beidagang Wetland, Yellow River Delta protected Reaserve and Nenjiang bank. Poyang Lake Reserve is the main wintering areas for Oriental white storks. The migration routes of the six Oriental white storks in autumn are basically the same, but the routes don’t overlap. The migration distance was (2968.3 ± 507.5) km in autumn 2015. The migration time was (48.1 ± 13.3) d. The rest time was (38.1 ± 12.3) d. The number of stopovers was (6 ± 1.8). The number of important stopovers is (18.5 ± 5.7). The maximum flying altitude was (1743.8 ± 303.1) m. Oriental white storks use different migration strategies to fly across the Bohai Bay. Crossing the Bohai Bay can greatly reduce the migration time, but only one Oriental white stork chooses to cross the bay. The main mountain obstacles in the migration of Oriental white storks were Changbai Mountain Range and Yanshan Mountain Range.

文章引用: 彭 文 , 朱宝光 , 董树斌 , 李 冰 , 李晓民 (2020) 卫星跟踪的东方白鹳秋季迁徙路线研究。 世界生态学, 9, 108-116. doi: 10.12677/IJE.2020.91014

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