﻿ 长江上游梯级水电站群的水能宏观关系研究

# 长江上游梯级水电站群的水能宏观关系研究Relationship between Water and Energy for Cascade Hydropower Stations in Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River

Abstract: Hydropower stations convert water energy into electricity. The estimation of hydropower generation of power stations and water resources of basins from each other can be directly implemented in a simple way, which provides a basis for water-energy conversion. The 21 large-scale cascade hydropower stations in upper reaches of the Yangtze River were selected as the case study, and the conventional and deterministic optimization operations were used to simulate reservoir operation, and then the water-energy conversion relationship was established. The results show that: 1) the linear relationship between the outflow and power generation is significant for a single hydropower station; 2) there is a linear relationship between the total water resources of the basin and the total power generation of the cascade hydropower stations and 3) the water energy relationship has a better goodness of fitting when the installed capacity is used as the weight. The proposed method provides a new way to estimate the amount of water resources based on power generation, and to estimate the power generation from water resources.

1. 引言

2. 研究方法

2.1. 水–能关系构建

2.1.1. 单个水电站

$E=N\cdot t=k\cdot q\cdot h\cdot t$ (1)

$E=k\left({q}_{0}\cdot {h}_{0}+{h}_{0}\left(q-{q}_{0}\right)+{q}_{0}\left(h-{h}_{0}\right)+HOT\right)\cdot t$ (2)

$E=k\left({h}_{0}q+{q}_{0}h-{q}_{0}{h}_{0}\right)\cdot t$ (3)

$E=\left(a\cdot q+b\right)\cdot t$ (4)

2.1.2. 梯级水电站

${E}_{总}={N}_{总}\cdot t=\left(A\cdot Q+B\right)\cdot t$ (5)

2.2. 梯级水电站群调度模型

2.2.1. 目标函数

$E=\mathrm{max}\underset{k=1}{\overset{M}{\sum }}{E}_{i}$ (6)

2.2.2. 约束条件

1) 水量平衡约束：

${V}_{i+1,j}={V}_{i,j}+\left({I}_{i,j}-{Q}_{i,j}\right)\cdot t$ (7)

2) 水电站库容约束：

$V{L}_{i,j}\le {V}_{i,j}\le V{U}_{i,j}$ (8)

3) 水电站出库流量约束：

$Q{L}_{i,j}\le {Q}_{i,j}\le Q{U}_{i,j}$ (9)

4) 水电站出力约束：

$P{L}_{i,j}\le {P}_{i,j}\le P{U}_{i,j}$ (10)

5) 非负约束及其他约束。

2.2.3. 模型求解

3. 案例分析

3.1. 长江上游梯级水电站群调度

Figure 1. Overview of hydropower stations in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River

Table 1. The results of cascade hydropower station group

3.2. 推求水–能转化关系

3.2.1. 单个水电站

1) 以水定电

Table 2. The power generation and water resources fitting results of the Three Gorges hydropower station

Table 3. The water-energy relationship fitting results of a single hydropower station

2) 以电定水

3.2.2. 梯级水电站

1) 直接拟合

1、以水定电

(a) 常规调度水–能关系 (b) 优化调度水–能关系(c) 常规调度能–水关系 (d) 优化调度能–水关系

Figure 2. The energy-water relationship calibration results of the hydropower station group

Table 4. The power generation and water resources fitting result of the hydropower station group

2、以电定水

2) 权重拟合

4. 结论及展望

(a) 常规调度水–能关系 (b) 优化调度水–能关系(c) 常规调度能–水关系 (d) 优化调度能–水关系

Figure 3. The weighted water-energy relationship calibration results of the hydropower station group

1) 推求单个水电站的特性参数，建立适用于各水电站的水–能转化关系；

2) 基于聚合思想，可构建各水电站电量累加值与流域水资源总量的宏观年尺度水–能转化关系；以各电站装机容量作为权重，推求的水–能转化关系拟合效果更佳。

3) 以水–能转化关系为基础，可通过流域实际发电量推求流域水资源量。

1) 部分水库单库的拟合效果不佳，应进一步分析原因并考虑其他优选的拟合方式。

2) 可以考虑更多的水库权重确定方式，并加以比较，以确定最佳的权重确定方法，综合考虑流域内各水电站的影响。

NOTES

*通讯作者。

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