﻿ 考虑鱼苗丰度的三峡水库生态调度研究

# 考虑鱼苗丰度的三峡水库生态调度研究Research on Ecological Operation of Three Gorges Reservoir Considering Larval Abundance

Abstract: In order to reduce the adverse influence of The Three Gorges reservoir operation on larval abundance of the four major Chinese carps, the problem that how to balance the economy and ecology in the mul-ti-objective optimal operation of the reservoir is studied. Based on the existed research and ecological operation experience, three key hydrological indexes are identified from the seven possible hydrological indexes, then find the response relationship between the three indexes and the fry abundance by BP neural networks. Based on the response relationship, a multi-objective reservoir optimal operation model is established with the target of maximizing the hydropower output from the Three Gorges Hydropower Station and maximizing the larval abundance of the four major Chinese carps, then the paper introduces the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm as the optimization algorithm for the operation model. The results indicated that the contradiction between the two targets can be balanced by the optimal operation, and the larval abundance of the four major Chinese carps can be greatly improved when the hydropower output is hardly reduced. The paper provides a new perspective for the current multi-objective optimal operation of reservoirs during the fish reproduction period.

1. 引言

2. 研究对象概况

3. 模型建立及求解

3.1. 水文指标选取及显著性检验

Table 1. The results of hydrological index test

3.2. 关键水文指标与鱼苗丰度响应关系

Table 2. Comparison of fitting effect

3.3. 三峡水库多目标优化调度建模

1) 目标函数：

$E=\mathrm{max}\underset{t=1}{\overset{T}{\sum }}K{H}_{t}{q}_{t}\Delta t$ (1)

$A=\mathrm{max}f\left({Q}_{1},{Q}_{2},\cdots {Q}_{T}\right)$ (2)

2) 约束条件：

${V}_{t+1}={V}_{t}+\left({I}_{t}-{Q}_{t}\right)×\Delta t$ (3)

${N}_{t}^{\mathrm{min}}\le {N}_{t}\le {N}_{t}^{\mathrm{max}}$ (4)

${Z}_{t}^{\mathrm{min}}\le {Z}_{t}\le {Z}_{t}^{\mathrm{max}}$ (5)

${Q}_{t}^{\mathrm{min}}\le {Q}_{t}\le {Q}_{t}^{\mathrm{max}}$ (6)

$|{Z}_{t\text{+1}}^{}-{Z}_{t}|\le 0.6$ (7)

Table 3. Multi-objective optimal operation scheme of the Three Gorges Reservoir

4. 优化调度方案分析

Figure 1. The outflow of the Three Gorges Reservoir under different typical optimal schemes

5. 结论

[1] 王尚玉, 廖文根, 陈大庆, 等. 长江中游四大家鱼产卵场的生态水文特性分析[J]. 长江流域资源与环境, 2008(6): 892-897. WANG Shangyu, LIAO Wengen, CHEN Daqin, et al. Analysis of eco-hydrological characteristics of the four Chinese farmed carps’ spawning grounds in the middle reach of the Yangtze River. Resources & Environment in the Yangtze Basin, 2008(6): 892-897. (in Chinese)

[2] 陈永柏, 廖文根, 彭期冬, 等. 四大家鱼产卵水文水动力特性研究综述[J]. 水生态学杂志, 2009, 30(2): 130-133. CHEN Yongbo, LIAO Wengen, PENG Qidong, et al. A summary of hydrology and hydrodynamics conditions of four Chinese carp’s spawning. Journal of Hydro-Ecology, 2009, 30(2): 130-133. (in Chinese)

[3] 张晓敏, 黄道明, 谢文星, 等. 汉江中下游“四大家鱼”自然繁殖的生态水文特征[J]. 水生态学杂志, 2009, 30(2): 126-129. ZHANG Xiaomin, HUANG Daoming, XIE Wenxing, et al. Eco-hydrological characteristics of four major Chinese carps on nature spawning conditions in the mid-lower Hanjiang River. Journal of Hydroecology, 2009, 30(2): 126-129. (in Chi-nese)

[4] KOEL, T. M., SPARKS, R. E. Historical patterns of river stage and fish communities as criteria for operations of dams on the Illinois river. River Research & Applications, 2010, 18(1): 3-19.
https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.630

[5] 李建, 夏自强. 基于物理栖息地模拟的长江中游生态流量研究[J]. 水利学报, 2011, 42(6): 678-684. LI Jian, XIA Ziqiang. Study on instream ecological flow of the middle Yangtze River based on physical habitat simulation. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 2011, 42(6): 678-684. (in Chinese)

[6] HORNE, A., STEWARDSON, M., FREEBAIRN, J., et al. Using an economic framework to inform management of environmental entitlements. River Research & Applications, 2010, 26(6): 779-795.
https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.1275

[7] 赵越, 周建中, 许可, 等. 保护四大家鱼产卵的三峡水库生态调度研究[J]. 四川大学学报(工程科学版), 2012, 44(4): 45-50. ZHAO Yue, ZHOU Jianzhong, XU Ke, et al. Ecological operation of three gorges reservoir for protection of four major Chinese carps spawning. Journal of Sichuan University (Engineering Science Edition), 2012, 44(4): 45-50. (in Chinese)

[8] 梁鹏腾, 李继清. 基于洪水脉冲历时的三峡水库生态调度研究[J]. 中国农村水利水电, 2017(5): 150-154. LIANG Pengteng, LI Jiqing. A study of three gorges reservoir ecological operation based on flood pulse duration. China Rural Water and Hydropower, 2017(5): 150-154. (in Chinese)

[9] 李继伟. 梯级水库群多目标优化调度与决策方法研究[D]: [博士学位论文]. 北京: 华北电力大学, 2014. LI Jiwei. Research on multi-objective optimal operation and decision methods for cascaded reservoirs. Beijing: North China Electric Power University, 2014. (in Chinese)

[10] 卢有麟, 周建中, 王浩, 等. 三峡梯级枢纽多目标生态优化调度模型及其求解方法[J]. 水科学进展, 2011, 22(6): 780-788. LU Youlin, ZHOU Jianzhong, WANG Hao, et al. Multi-objective optimization model for ecological operation in Three Gorges cascade hydropower stations and its algorithms. Advances in Water Science, 2011, 22(6): 780-788. (in Chinese)

[11] 俞立雄. 长江中游四大家鱼典型产卵场地形及水动力特征研究[D]: [博士学位论文]. 重庆: 西南大学, 2018. YU Lixiong. Study on the topography and hydrodynamic characteristics of the four major Chinese carps’ typical spawning grounds in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Chongqing: Southwest University, 2018. (in Chinese)

[12] 李翀, 彭静, 廖文根. 长江中游四大家鱼发江生态水文因子分析及生态水文目标确定[J]. 中国水利水电科学研究院学报, 2006(3): 170-176. LI Chong, PENG Jing and LIAO Wengen. Study on the eco-hydrological factors and flow regime requirement on spawning of four major Chinese carps in the middle reaches of Yangtze River. Journal of China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, 2006(3): 170-176. (in Chinese)

[13] 陈进, 李清清. 三峡水库试验性运行期生态调度效果评价[J]. 长江科学院院报, 2015, 32(4): 1-6. CHEN Jin, LI Qingqing. Assessment of eco-operation effect of Three Gorges Reservoir during trial run period. Journal of Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute, 2015, 32(4): 1-6. (in Chinese)

[14] 陈敏. 长江流域水库生态调度成效与建议[J]. 长江技术经济, 2018, 2(2): 36-40. CHEN Min. Effectiveness and suggestions of reservoir ecological regulation in the Yangtze River Basin. Technology and Economy of Changjiang, 2018, 2(2): 36-40. (in Chinese)

[15] DEB, K., PRATAP, A., AGARWAL, S., et al. A fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 2002, 6(2): 182-197.
https://doi.org/10.1109/4235.996017

Top