# 特朗普与希拉里电视辩论的批评性话语分析A Critical Analysis of the Television Debates between Hillary and Trump

Abstract: With the theory of CAD, this thesis analyzes and compares debating strategies, purposes of candidates and differences in the use of argumentative strategies in details in the three presidential television debates of 2016, so as to analyze the causes of changing strategies and have some major findings of debating strategies in practical debates. From the research, we can reach the conclusion that candidates’ performance and the use of argumentative strategies in the broadcast debates have important influence on their supporting rate even the final result. To achieve the purpose of one’s debate, both debaters would adjust their argumentative strategies with the development of debate.

1. 引言

2. 相关研究

Bakhtin的跨文本理论强调话语的多产性和创造性。任何话语都基于现有的话语，并在许多话语类型中被选择。Fairclough发现当代英国公共机构具有“商业化”趋势，从话语的角度来看，它主要反映在话语秩序的重组和文本间的话语中。他发现公共机构的话语越来越“可以互换”，原始的公共话语和日常生活话语的秩序被打乱，两个界限都是可伸缩的。他认为，公共生活和私人生活界限的变化部分是通过这种话语实践的变化而实现的 [9] 。互文性分析方法强调读者对话语中修辞意图的理解 [10] 。不同的话语反映了不同的意义，代表了不同人或群体的利益和意识形态。互文性分析方法有助于揭示不同特定话语的表达方式，进而反应出不同的语义和语用功能。

3. 理论框架

3.1. 语篇–历史分析方法(Discourse-Historical Approach, DHA)

DHA总共有五种话语策略，即指称策略，论证策略，预测策略，强化或缓解策略，以及框架或话语表征策略。由于本论文的结构和目的，下一节仅介绍前四种策略，不包括框架或话语表征策略。

3.2. 语用预设

4. 案例分析及讨论

4.1. 特朗普与希拉里的三次电视辩论

4.1.1. 第一场辩论

9月27日上午，2016年美国总统大选的两位候选人，民主党候选人希Hillary Clinton (希拉里·克林顿)和共和党候选人Donald Trump (唐纳德·特朗普)在纽约的霍夫斯特拉大学举行了第一次电视辩论。主持人是NBC晚间新闻的主播Lester Holt。这场90分钟的辩论分为6个部分，每个部分长15分钟。辩论的主题是：实现繁荣，美国的方向，和保卫美国。两位总统候选人还就美国经济和种族问题进行了辩论。在每个部分开始时，主持人向两位候选人提出相同的引导问题，他们每人最多有两分钟时间回复。这场引人注目的“口水战”被认为是选举中最重要和最关键的转折点。在此次辩论之前，外界普遍认为希拉里可以赢得辩论，她的支持率也在大选中领先，而特朗普则处于不利的选举状态。通过对以下三个示例的详细分析，以期揭示波动的支持率与辩论策略之间的关系。

Hillary: I call it trumped-up trickle-down, because that’s exactly what it would be. That is not how we grow the economy…And so what I believe is the more invest in you, your education, your skills, your future…

Trump: When we sell into Mexico, …16 percent, approximately…It’s been defective for a long time, many years, but the politicians haven’t done anything about it. She’s been doing this for 30 years. And why hasn’t she made the agreements better?…

Hillary: Nine million people lost their jobs. Five million people lost their homes. Independent experts looked at my plans and they’ve said, OK, if we can do this, we will have 10 million more new jobs and looked at what Donald’s proposed, which would blow up the debt by over $5 trillion and we would lose 3.5 million jobs. …Take clean energy. Donald thinks that climate change is a hoax perpetrated by the Chinese. Trump: I did not. I did not. I do not say that. I do not say that. 在这一部分，希拉里经常使用数字来支持她的论点并攻击特朗普。在描述与特朗普有关的住房危机时，希拉里使用了“九百万”(Nine million)和“五百万”(Five million)。这让选民认为，特朗普的政策不能改变失业和流浪者的现状。此外，希拉里利用预测策略将自己提出的就业政策进行了积极的褒奖。现实惯用话语，数字惯用话语和财政惯用话语的使用，特别是“5万亿美元”($5 trillion)和“350万”(3.5 million)两个数字，希拉里向选民们传达的信息是，特朗普所有的这些计划都花费了太多的钱，失去了太多的工作，给政府带来了沉重的负担。为了避免经济负担，大家不应该让特朗普有机会执行他的政策。至于特朗普，他没有对希拉里提到的他计划的不利之处给出具体的解释。他只是否认了希拉里对于他关于清洁能源看法的解读。与希拉里相比，特朗普在本环节中是被动的，没有充分利用辩论策略来实现他的辩论目标。

Hillary: I happen to—I happen to support that in a way that will actually work to our benefit. … you have what is called now the Trump loophole, because it would so advantage you and the business you do.

Trump: Who gave it that name? The first I’ve—who gave it that name?

4.1.2. 第二场辩论

2016年的第二次总统电视辩论于2016年10月9日在密苏里州圣路易斯的华盛顿大学举行。当两名候选人没有握手相遇时，就可以看出竞争的激烈程度。在辩论中，两位候选人提到了税制改革的主题，“伊斯兰国家”，伊拉克战争，移民，医疗改革，绿色能源和与俄罗斯的关系等内政问题，但实际上他们的答案并不令人满意，并一次又一次陷入了“谁在撒谎”的恶性循环。在辩论期间，两位候选人在特朗普的“性丑闻”中争论了将近20分钟。

Hillary: He has said that the video doesn’t represent who he is. But I think it’s clear to anyone who heard it that it represents exactly who he is. Because we’ve seen this throughout the campaign. We have seen him insult women. We’ve seen him rate women on their appearance, …We’ve seen him embarrass women on TV and on Twitter.

Trump: It’s just words, folks. … I’ve heard them where Hillary is constantly talking about the inner cities of our country, which are a disaster education-wise, job-wise, safety-wise, in every way possible.

Trump: But for you to say that there was nothing wrong with you deleting 39,000 e-mails, again, you should be ashamed of yourself. What you did — and this is after getting a subpoena from the United States Congress.

Hillary: OK, Donald. I know you’re into big diversion tonight, anything to avoid talking about your campaign and the way it’s exploding and the way Republicans are leaving you. But let’s at least focus… on some of the issues that people care about tonight. Let’s get to their questions.

Hillary: …when the Affordable Care Act passed, it wasn’t just that 20 million got insurance who didn’t have it before. But that in and of itself was a good thing. I meet these people all the time, and they tell me what a difference having that insurance meant to them and their families.

Trump: Obama care is a disaster. …It’s only getting worse. And not only are your rates going up by numbers that nobody’s ever believed, but your deductibles are going up, so that unless you get hit by a truck, you’re never going to be able to use it.

Trump: I will be a president for all of our people. And I’ll be a president that will turn our inner cities around and will give strength to people and will give economics to people and will bring jobs back. She’s been talking about it for years. As usual, she talks about it, nothing happens.

Hillary: Well, 67 percent of the people voted to re-elect me when I ran for my second term, … I worked to make sure that kids with disabilities could get a public education,… I have worked with Latinos … So I have a deep devotion, to making sure that an every American feels like he or she has a place in our country.

4.1.3. 第三场辩论

2016年美国总统竞选的最后一场总统电视辩论于10月19日在内华达州拉斯维加斯大学启动。主持人是福克斯新闻频道的主播，克里斯华莱士。希拉里和特朗普之间的第二次辩论主要集中在人身攻击上，而不是他们的政策观点，所以最后的辩论将集中在枪支权，堕胎，移民和经济问题。接下来，作者将引用两个例子来分析两个候选人在最后的辩论中如何运用辩论策略来实现他们的选举目标。

Hillary: I understand that Donald has been strongly supported by the NRA, the gun lobby is on his side. They’re running millions of dollars of ads against me … of course we’re going to protect and defend the second amendment.

Trump: We are going to appoint justices, this is the best way to help the second amendment. We are going to appoint justices that will feel very strongly about the second amendment.

Hillary: This is how Donald thinks, and it’s funny, but it’s also really troubling. That is not the way our democracy works. We’ve been around for 240 years. We’ve had free and fair elections.

Trump: I think what the FBI did and what the Department of Justice did, including meeting with her husband, the Attorney General, in the back of an airplane on the tarmac in Arizona, I think it’s disgraceful. I think it’s a disgrace.

4.2. 语用预设的分析

4.3. 辩论策略

4.3.1. 辩论策略的差异

Table 1. Different debating strategies used in the three debates

4.3.2. 造成差异的原因

5. 结论

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