﻿ 澜沧江允景洪水文站历史洪水水沙关系研究

# 澜沧江允景洪水文站历史洪水水沙关系研究Relationship between Water and Sediment in Historical Floods at Yunjinghong Gauging Station, Lancang River

Abstract: Investigation of historical flooding elements is a key point in hydrological surveys, aiming to explore historical hydrological regime out of the period of hydrological observation and provide data support and scientific basis for the construction and management of water conservancy projects. Based on flood data gauged at Yunjinghong hydrology station, Relationship between water level, discharge and sediment content was detected. Through the analysis and test of correlation, the relationship between water and sediment of the natural river in the flood season in the historical period was restored. Results in this work could be the foundation for recovering the information of historical flood with trace deposits.

1. 引言

2. 研究区域概况

3. 数据与方法

3.1. 数据来源

3.2. 分析方法

$r=\frac{n{\sum }^{\text{​}}xy-{\sum }^{\text{​}}x{\sum }^{\text{​}}y}{\sqrt{\left[n{\sum }^{\text{​}}{x}^{2}-{\left({\sum }^{\text{​}}x\right)}^{2}\right]\left[n{\sum }^{\text{​}}{y}^{2}-{\left({\sum }^{\text{​}}y\right)}^{2}\right]}}$ (1)

r值在+1与−1之间，其值越接近±1，表示两变量直线相关的程度越高，月接近零，则相关程度越低；正号r值表示两变量有同增同减的同方向变动关系，反之为一增一减的异方向变动关系。直线回归分析方法：直线回归的一般方程式是y = a + bx，式中的x是自变量，y是因变量，称y倚x回归方程。在方程中，用最小平方法估计参数b的公式是：

$b=\frac{n{\sum }^{\text{​}}xy-{\sum }^{\text{​}}x{\sum }^{\text{​}}y}{n{\sum }^{\text{​}}{x}^{2}-{\left({\sum }^{\text{​}}x\right)}^{2}}$ (2)

${\sigma }_{y}=\sqrt{\frac{\underset{i=1}{\overset{n}{\sum }}y-{y}_{1}}{n-1}}$ (3)

${s}_{y}=±\sqrt{1-{r}^{2}}$ (4)

4. 结果

4.1. 水位流量关系

4.1.1. 影响因素分析

Figure 1. Curve of water level-sectional area of Yunjing Flood Station

4.1.2. 趋势分析

Table 1. Cross-sectional area of each year under different water levels

Figure 2. Trend of water level over the years

4.1.3. 水位–流量关系分析

Figure 3. Trend of flow over the years

Figure 4. Double-accumulation curve of water level flow

Figure 5. Relationship between water level and flow rate at each stage

Table 2. Regression equations of sediment concentration in each period

4.2. 流量含沙量关系

4.2.1. 趋势分析

4.2.2. 流量-含沙量关系分析

Figure 6. Trend of sediment concentration over the years

Figure 7. Curve of sediment concentration in runoff at each stage

Figure 8. Double accumulated curve of sediment concentration

4.2.3. 回归线误差

60年代：0.52；70年代：0.55；80年代：0.75

5. 讨论

Figure 9. Relationship between runoff and sediment concentration in the 60~80 years

6. 结论

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