对面孔吸引性个体的偏爱—基于不同角度的解释
The Preference for People with Facial Attractiveness—Explanations from Different Perspectives

作者: 宋慧玲 :湖南师范大学,教育科学学院,湖南 长沙;

关键词: 面孔吸引性解释Facial Attractiveness Explanations

摘要:
美丽获益(beauty premium)现象在大量文献中被发现,对此,不同的研究者从不同的角度进行了解释。经济学家认为这种现象与个体对某一特定种族的偏见相似。社会学家用刻板印象进行解释,认为吸引性面孔激活了个体关于他们的积极的刻板印象,因此认为吸引性个体具有更好的品质和行为,所以表现出了对他们的偏爱。进化心理学家普遍认为对吸引性个体的偏爱是与求偶和有关,但是不同进化理论的解释侧重点有所不同。基于认知过程的解释认为并不存在对吸引性面孔的偏爱,个体只是偏爱平均化或典型性的面孔,而吸引性的面孔正好符合这一标准,因此才表现出对他们的偏爱。最后一个基于奖赏角度的解释认为,对吸引性面孔的偏爱是因为吸引性面孔具有奖赏价值,在观看这些面孔时激活了大脑中相关的奖赏系统。本综述对各个观点进行阐述,以便更全面的认识和理解个体对吸引性面孔的偏爱。

Abstract: The preference for people with facial attractiveness has been documented in the labor market, in social transactions in everyday life, and in studies involving experimental economic games. The taste-based discrimination model developed by economists suggest that attractiveness-related financial and prosocial biases are the result of preferences or prejudices similar to those displayed toward members of a particular sex, racial, ethnic, or religious group. Other explanations proposed by economists and social psychologists maintain that attractiveness is a marker of personality, intelligence, trustworthiness, professional competence, or productivity. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that attractive adults are favored because they are preferred sexual partners. The explanation based on cognitive process suggests that preferences for attractive faces result from the similarity to facial prototype, prototypical faces are processed more fluently, resulting in increased positive affect in the viewer. Finally, the explanation based on rewards suggests that it has nothing to do with genetic continuity, but stresses the rewarding property of attractiveness that results mainly from sociocultural value assignment and sexual experience pursuit. The present review aims to illustrate different explanations about the preference for people with facial attractiveness.

文章引用: 宋慧玲 (2017) 对面孔吸引性个体的偏爱—基于不同角度的解释。 心理学进展, 7, 1233-1239. doi: 10.12677/AP.2017.710153

参考文献

[1] 李鸥, 陈红(2010). 面孔吸引力的回顾与前瞻. 心理科学进展, 18(3), 472-479.

[2] Agthe, M., Spörrle, M., Frey, D., & Maner, J. K. (2014). Looking up versus Looking down: Attractiveness-Based Organizational Biases Are Moderated by Social Comparison Direction. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44, 40-45.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12198

[3] Allen, R., Wasserman, G. A., & Seidman, S. (1990). Children with Congenital Anomalies: The Preschool Period. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 15, 327-45.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/15.3.327

[4] Barclay, P. (2010). Altruism as a Courtship Display: Some Effects of Third-Party Generosity on Audience Perceptions. British Journal of Psychology, 101, 123-135.
https://doi.org/10.1348/000712609X435733

[5] Beaulieu, D. A., & Bugental, D. (2008). Contingent Parental Investment: An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding Early Interaction between Mothers and Children. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 249-255.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2008.01.002

[6] Becker, G. (1957). The Economics of Discrimination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

[7] Berscheid, E., & Walster, E. (1974). Physical Attractiveness. In L. Berkowilz (Ed) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (pp. 157-216). Cambridge: Academic Press.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60037-4

[8] Bruckert, L., Bestelmeyer, P., Latinus, M., Rouger, J., Charest, I., Rousselet, G. A., & Belin, P. (2010). Vocal Attractiveness Increases by Averaging. Current Biology, 20, 116-120.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.034

[9] Chen, B. B. (2017). Explanations for Attractiveness-Related Positive Biases in an Evolutionary Perspective of Life History Theory. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 40.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X16000455

[10] Chen, J., Zhong, J., Zhang, Y., Li, P., Zhang, A., Tan, Q. et al. (2012). Electrophysiological Correlates of Processing Facial Attractiveness and Its Influence on Cooperative Behavior. Neuroscience Letters, 517, 65-70.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2012.02.082

[11] Dakanalis, A., Zanetti, M. A., Riva, G., & Clerici, M. (2013). Psychosocial Moderators of the Relationship between Body Dissatisfaction and Symptoms of Eating Disorders: A Look at a Sample of Young Italian Women. Revue Européenne De Psychologie Appliquée/european Review of Applied Psychology, 63, 323-334.

[12] Gheorghiu, A. I., Callan, M. J., & Skylark, W. J. (2017). Facial Appearance Affects Science Communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114, 5970-5975.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1620542114

[13] Griffin, A. M., & Langlois, J. H. (2006). Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness Stereotyping: Is Beauty Good or Is Ugly Bad? Social Cognition, 24, 187-206.
https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2006.24.2.187

[14] Griffin, A. M., & Langlois, J. H. (2006). Stereotype Directionality and Attractiveness: Is Beauty Good or Is Ugly Bad? Social Cognition, 24, 187-206.
https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2006.24.2.187

[15] Hamermesh, D. S. (2006). Changing Looks and Changing “Discrimination”: The beauty of Economists. Economics Letters, 93, 405-412.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2006.06.004

[16] Hamermesh, D. S. (2011). Beauty Pays: Why Attractive People Are More Successful. Princeton: Princeton University Press

[17] Hosoda, M., Stone-Romero, E. F., & Coats, G. (2003). The Effects of Physical Attractiveness on Job-Related Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Studies. Personnel Psychology, 56, 431-462.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00157.x

[18] Hoss, R. A., Ramsey, J. L., Griffin, A. M., & Langlois, J. H. (2005). The Role of Facial Attractiveness and Facial Masculinity/Femininity in Sex Classification of Faces. Perception, 34, 1459-1474.
https://doi.org/10.1068/p5154

[19] Ishai, A. (2007). Sex, Beauty and the Orbitofrontal Cortex. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 63, 181-185.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2006.03.010

[20] Langlois, J. H., Roggman, L. A., & Musselman, L. (1994). What Is Average and What Is Not Average about Attractive Faces? Psychological Science, 5, 214-220.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1994.tb00503.x

[21] Langlois, J. H., Roggman, L. A., & Rieser-Danner, L. A. (1990). Infants’ Differential Social Responses to Attractive and Unattractive Faces. Developmental Psychology, 26, 153-159.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.26.1.153

[22] Leeuwen, M. L. V., Veling, H., Baaren, R. B. V., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2009). The Influence of Facial Attractiveness on Imitation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 1295-1298.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2009.07.008

[23] Lemay, E. P., Clark, M. S., & Greenberg, A. (2010). What Is Beautiful Is Good Because What Is Beautiful Is Desired: Physical Attractiveness Stereotyping as Projection of Interpersonal Goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 339-353.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167209359700

[24] Little, A. C. (2014). Facial Attractiveness. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science, 5, 621-634.

[25] Little, A. C., Jones, B. C., & DeBruine, L. M. (2011). Facial Attractiveness: Evolutionary Based Research. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 366, 1638-1659.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0404

[26] Mobius, M. M., & Rosenblat, T. S. (2006). Why Beauty Matters. American Economic Review, 96, 222-235.
https://doi.org/10.1257/000282806776157515

[27] Monahan, J. L., Murphy, S. T., & Zajonc, R. B. (2000). Subliminal Mere Exposure: Specific, General, and Diffuse Effects. Psychological Science, 11, 462-466.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00289

[28] Rhodes, G. (2006). The Evolutionary Psychology of Facial Beauty. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 199-266.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190208

[29] Rhodes, G., Zebrowitz, L. A., Clark, A., Kalick, S. M., Hightower, A., & McKay, R. (2001b). Do Facial Averageness and Symmetry Signal Health? Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 31-46.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-5138(00)00060-X

[30] Rosenblat, T. S. (2008). The Beauty Premium: Physical Attractiveness and Gender Indicator Games. Negotiation Journal, 24, 465-481.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00198.x

[31] Stirrat, M., & Perrett, D. I. (2010). Valid Facial Cues to Cooperation and Trust: Malefacial Width and Trustworthiness. Psychological Science, 21, 349-354.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610362647

[32] Trujillo, L. T., Jankowitsch, J. M., & Langlois, J. H. (2014). Beauty Is in the Ease of the Beholding: A Neurophysiological Test of the Averageness Theory of Facial Attractiveness. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 14, 1061-1076.
https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-013-0230-2

[33] Verhulst, B., Lodge, M., & Lavine, H. (2010). The Attractiveness Halo: Why Some Candidates Are Perceived More Favorably Than Others. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 34, 111-117.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-009-0084-z

[34] Winkielman, P., Halberstadt, J., Fazendeiro, T., & Catty, S. (2006). Prototypes Are Attractive Because They Are Easy on the Mind. Psychological Science, 17, 799-806.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01785.x

[35] Winston, J. S., O’Doherty, J., Kilner, J. M., Perrett, D. I., & Dolan, R. J. (2007). Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness. Neuropsychologia, 45, 195-206.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.05.009

[36] Zebrowitz, L. A., & Montepare, J. M. (2008). Social Psychological Face Perception: Why Appearance Matters. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 1497- 517.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2008.00109.x

分享
Top