PAHs致毒机制及其微生物降解研究进展
Progress in Biodegradation and Mechanism of Carcinogenic of PAHs

作者: 邓 春 , 赵红艳 , 高美丽 :西安交通大学生命科学与技术学院,生物科学与工程系生物医学信息工程教育部重点实验室,陕西 西安;

关键词: 多环芳烃致毒机制微生物降解降解效率Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Toxic Mechanism Microbial Degradation Degradation Efficiency

摘要:
多环芳烃是严重威胁人体健康并广泛存在于环境中的有机污染物,在相关研究的基础上,简要介绍了多环芳烃的性质和来源,深入探讨了多环芳烃的致毒机制,例如多环芳烃介导DNA加合物形成,或者在表观遗传学层面通过改变遗传物质引起病变等。介于多环芳烃毒性强、难降解等特点,与物理、化学降解方法相比,微生物降解显示出极大优越性。继而阐述了微生物降解多环芳烃的经典途径,其中包括细菌和真菌对多环芳烃的降解。并从多环芳烃自身理化性质,微生物及其群落的生物可利用性,环境因子等方面入手,着重总结了提高微生物降解多环芳烃效率的方法。同时,以环境中多环芳烃污染的防治、个体对多环芳烃易感性等方面为出发点,提出了降低多环芳烃对人体、环境的毒害作用的几点建议,也对下一步的研究方向进行了展望,希望对相关的研究工作带来帮助。

Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants, which are hazardous to human health. Based on the previous research, the properties and sources of PAHs were described briefly, and the mechanism of carcinogenic of PAHs was discussed thoroughly. For example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mediated the formation of DNA adducts, or PAHs by causing genetic materials changes at the level of epigenetics raised lesions, and so on. Given the strong toxicity and refractory characteristics of PAHs, microbial degradation showing a great of superiority compared to the approaches of physical and chemical to degradate PAHs. Then the classic biodegration pathway of PAHs of fungus and bacteria was elaborated. From the aspects of PAHs’ physico-chemical properties and bioavailability of microorganisms or their communities, as well as other aspects of environmental factors, the primary methods to improve the efficiency of biodegradation were summarized. In order to reduce the toxic effect of PAHs on human health and the environment, we proposed some advice from aspects of pollution prevention and control along with the individual susceptibility of PAHs simultaneously. This paper suggests further directions and hopes to bring help on further work.

文章引用: 邓 春 , 赵红艳 , 高美丽 (2017) PAHs致毒机制及其微生物降解研究进展。 环境保护前沿, 7, 315-324. doi: 10.12677/AEP.2017.74044

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