回避型依恋者对消极情绪信息防御性加工特征
The Defensive Characteristics of Negative Emotional Information Processing of Avoidant Attachment

作者: 唐清婷 , 胡 佳 , 陈 旭 , 刘 颖 :西南大学心理学部,重庆;

关键词: 回避型依恋情绪加工防御性排斥双加工模型防御失效Avoidant Attachment Style Emotion Process Defensive Exclusion Dual-Process Model Noneffective Defence

摘要:
准确加工情绪信息在人际关系管理及一般社会功能上起重要作用。不安全依恋风格影响个体的情绪加工偏向。回避型依恋者抑制消极刺激的加工,并且被看做拥有早期无意识的焦虑自我模型以及晚期控制的积极自我模型。本文主要探讨回避型依恋者加工消极情绪信息的防御性排斥特征,具体表现为一种早期警觉和晚期抑制的双重加工模型。行为证据证明了回避型依恋者在早期自动化加工阶段表现出同依恋焦虑者类似的对威胁相关信息的警觉探测。ERP成分也体现了回避者早期警觉的特征,表现在N1、P2等注意警觉相关成分以及C1、P1等基于粗略视觉特征的视觉情绪刺激加工相关的早成分更为强烈的波幅上。在晚期加工阶段这类个体则表现出对消极情绪的回避抑制加工,在表情模仿任务中出现“反转的微笑”以及stroop任务中更少的干扰效应证明其在晚期加工阶段的抑制加工特征。神经层面表现为回避型个体在认知控制脑区如背外侧前额叶、眶额皮层等脑区的激活。回避者对负性情绪的高度警觉是成功回避的前提,而这一策略在个体认知资源不足时出现失效。未来研究可进一步探讨回避型依恋与警觉-抑制注意模式的因果基础;关注防御性情绪信息加工对个体健康以及关系维持的影响及后果;深入考察去激活策略功能的有效性及其神经机制;深化回避防御在临床治疗上的应用,进一步为治疗依恋混乱相关的临床策略提供新的启示。

Abstract: Accurate processing of emotional information plays an important role in the management of in-terpersonal relationship and social function. Insecure attachment style effects the process of threaten related information. Individuals with avoidant pattern of attachment are assumed to repress threaten-related signals. They are assumed to have one internal working model associated with anxiety, operating out of awareness at early, automatic stages of information processing, and another positive model operating at later, cognitively controlled stages of processing. This paper discussed the defensive characteristics of negative emotion processing of avoidant attachment. Automatic vigilance followed by effortful inhibition as a cognitive defense for avoidant attachment to processing the threaten-related signals, which is expressed in a specific dual-process model of avoidant defenses included vigilance in early automatic process and avoidance in later controlled process. The evidences from various behavioral experimental paradigms included emoticon mimicry task, morph task, perceptual threshold task, as well as emotional cueing task provided support for the point of view that attachment avoidant individuals have the capacity to detect the threaten related information in certain circumstance in the early stage of information processing. This characteristic was also proved by the evidences from event-related potentials (ERP) components, which are mainly reflected in more strong amplitude in attention vigilance related components (N1, P2) and early components related to visual features-based emotion processing when presented negative emotion information in attachment avoidant individuals. However, individuals with avoidant attachment style processed negative emotion with attention inhibition at the cognitively controlled level of processing. The avoidant individual’ tendency to “smiling” in response to the angry face at the controlled level was interpreted as a repression of their earlier, automatically evoked negative emotional reaction. Coincidentally, consistent with the proposal that avoidant individuals limit attention to potentially distressing information, attachment avoidance was associated with reductions in emotional Stroop (ES) interference for threatening related stimulus. These individuals exhibited limited cognitive resources which were devoted in this phase. The evidences from functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that during the processing of negative emotion, these individuals with attachment avoidant exhibited more strong activities in brain region in charge of advanced cognitive and control function, such as the right hemisphere superior frontal gyms (rSFG), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and so on. It can be explained that effectively avoiding processing threaten related information is based on the heightened state of vigilance for attachment avoidance. The defense strategy of attachment avoidance was considered as a secondary strategy with cognitive effort to sustain in later stage of emotion information processing. This characteristic of cognitive resource consumption made the strategy ineffective when the cognitive resource deficit. Future studies can further explore the causal basis for the relationship between avoidant attachment and vigilance-inhibi- tion attention pattern, pay attention to the impact of defensive emotional processing on individual health and the maintain of intimate relationship, explore the neural mechanism and effectiveness of the deactivation strategy and further study the application of avoid defense in clinical treatment to provide new inspiration for the treatment of attachment disorder and related clinical strategies.

文章引用: 唐清婷 , 胡 佳 , 陈 旭 , 刘 颖 (2017) 回避型依恋者对消极情绪信息防御性加工特征。 心理学进展, 7, 199-206. doi: 10.12677/AP.2017.72026

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