天津市水产品重金属安全风险评估
Food Safety Risk Assessment of the Heavy Metals in Aquatic Products in Tianjin

作者: 顾海宁 , 胡哲斌 , 陈 晨 :中海油能源发展股份有限公司配餐服务分公司,天津; 霍苗苗 , 王俊平 :天津科技大学食品工程与生物技术学院,天津;

关键词: 水产品重金属污染分布风险评估Aquatic Products Heavy Metal Pollution Distribution Risk Assessment

摘要:
为了了解天津市水产品重金属污染现状以及居民膳食摄入的风险,2014年4~6月份采集了海水鱼类、淡水鱼类、甲壳类和软体动物四类水产品共124个样品,采用ICP-MS测定了可食部分中Cr、As、Cd、Hg和Pb五种重金属含量。采用单因子污染指数和重金属污染指数对污染程度进行评价,应用基于Monte Carlo模拟的Crystal Ball风险评估软件对居民通过食用水产品摄入五种重金属进行风险评估。污染结果显示,甲壳类 > 海水鱼类 > 软体动物 > 淡水鱼类,各类水产品中Cr的平均含量为0.3200、As的平均含量为1.3443、Cd的平均含量为0.0516、Hg的平均含量为0.0127、Pb的平均含量为0.2016,经过计算污染指数,各类水产品As污染均属于重度污染,Cd在甲壳类和淡水鱼类属于中度污染,在海水类属于轻度污染;Pb在甲壳类属于中度污染,在海水鱼类和软体动物属于轻度污染;Cr在海水鱼类和软体动物属于轻度污染。风险评估显示,居民通过食用水产品途径摄入Cr、As、Cd、Hg、Pb风险商的平均值均小于1,处于可以接受的水平内,但As的高暴露水平95百分位、97.5百分位和99百分位均高于1,说明居民通过食用水产品途径摄入As存在一定的潜在风险,应该引起重视。

Abstract: Heavy metal pollution situation and intake risk of aquatic products were studied in Tianjin. A total of 124 of four kinds of aquatic products were sampled in April, May, June 2014. The concentrations of Cr, As, Cd, Hg, Pb in edible muscles were measured by ICP-MS. Single factor pollution index and metal pollution index were used to evaluate the degree of pollution, and the dietary heavy metal exposure from aquatic products and the health risk were assessed by Oracle Crystal Ball based on Monte Carlo simulation method. MPI results showed that heavy metal pollution in crustacean was the most severe, followed by marine fish, mollusc and freshwater fish. The mean contents of Cr are 0.3200 mg/kg, As being 1.3443 mg/kg, Cd being 0.0516 mg/kg, Hg being 0.0127 mg/kg and Pb being 0.2016 mg/kg. The contents of As reached the criteria of Heavy Pollution; Cd in crustacean and freshwater fish belonged to Moderate Pollution, Light Pollution in marine fish; Pb in crustacean belonged to Moderate Pollution, Light Pollution in marine fish and mollusc; Cr in marine fish belonged to Light Pollution. Risk as-sessment results showed that the average of risk quotient of Cr, As, Cd, Hg, Pb by dietary intake of aquatic was less than 1, within acceptable levels, while high levels of exposure As at the 95th percentile, 97.5th percentile and 99th percentile were higher than 1, indicating that the dietary exposure of heavy metals only by aquatic consumption was probably to bring about severe health risk, which should attract the attention of residents.

文章引用: 顾海宁 , 胡哲斌 , 陈 晨 , 霍苗苗 , 王俊平 (2017) 天津市水产品重金属安全风险评估。 食品与营养科学, 6, 1-8. doi: 10.12677/HJFNS.2017.61001

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