会话含义理论视角下“V + 你的 + N!”句式研究
Research on “V + Your + N!” Pattern via Conversational Implicature Theory

作者: 张 慧 :南京大学文学院,江苏 南京;

关键词: “V + 你的 + N!”会话含义理论句法功能语义类型语境“V + Your + N” Conversational Implicature Theory Pattern Function Semantic Type Context

摘要:
“吃你的饭!”、“看你的书吧!”是现代汉语口语中很常见的一类祈使句,我们将其码化为“V + 你的 + N!”句式。目前学界对这类句式的专门研究较少。为此我们从句法、语义及语用等方面对该句式进行细致考察。从句法功能上看,“你的”语义值虚化且固化,“VN”在意义上通常是一个整体,主要是离合词和惯用语。从语义类型上看,该句式有两种语义类型:一种是否定类型,即否定“VN”,要求听话人停止“VN”行为,多带有赌气、嘲讽等语气,如“做你的白日梦吧!”另一种是两可类型,既有肯定的语义情态,要求听话人执行“VN”行为,多带有命令、催促等语气,又有否定的语义情态。其中两可类型中否定情态产生的会话含义是通过违背量的准则第二次准则和质的准则第一次准则来实现的。从会话含义理论的视角对“V + 你的 + N!”句式进行分析,可以看出该句式既属于特殊会话含义,又属于非标准会话含义。通过对这一特殊祈使句式的细致分析,有助于我们了解“V + 你的 + N!”在不同语境下的两种语义类型。

Abstract: “Have your lunch” etc. are a common type of imperative sentence in oral Chinese, which could be extracted as “V + your + N” pattern. We intend to have an impressive study on this. From the point of pattern function, the semantic value of “your” is virtual and fixed, while “VN” generally acts as a part, used as a detachable word or locution. As to semantic type, the pattern has two types: one is to deny “VN”, which usually accompanies with satire, like “keep your daydream”; the other is ambient, which means it could be either positive or negative requirement. The occurrence of negative insight depends on the violation of the maxim of quantity’s second sub-maxim and the maxim of quality’s first sub-maxim. The “V + your + N” pattern belongs to special as well as non-normal conversational implicature based on analysis via conversational implicature theory. According to the specific research on “V + your + N” pattern, a better understanding of the two semantic types in different contexts is obtained.

文章引用: 张 慧 (2016) 会话含义理论视角下“V + 你的 + N!”句式研究。 现代语言学, 4, 192-199. doi: 10.12677/ML.2016.44020

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