大学生自杀意念的危险因素和保护因素
Risk Factors and Protective Factors of Suicide Ideation in College Students

作者: 陈 乾 :山东师范大学心理学院,山东 济南;

关键词: 大学生自杀意念危险因素保护因素College Students Suicide Ideation Risk Factors Protective Factors

摘要:
自杀意念是指偶然体验的自杀行为动机,个体胡思乱想或打算自杀,但并未采取或实现此目的的外显行为。多项研究表明,自杀意念是评估自杀危险性的重要指标,所以研究自杀意念的危险因素和保护因素,对大学生自杀行为的预防有重要意义。自杀意念的危险因素众多,主要包括生物因素、心理因素和社会环境因素,如人格特质、绝望、学业问题等等;而目前对自杀意念保护因素的研究主要集中在自尊和社会支持上。多数研究者比较关注自杀意念的危险因素,而仅有很少数研究关注了自杀意念的保护因素。未来研究需要更为关注自杀意念保护因素、研究方法的多元化,以及哪些因素可以缓冲个体的自杀意念而使他们没有采取自杀行为。

Abstract: Suicide ideation refers to experiencing suicidal motivations; the individual has random thoughts or plans suicide, but without adopting external behavior for this purpose. A large body of researches have indicated suicide ideation is the important indicator of assessing the risk of suicide; therefore it is crucial for preventing the college students’ suicide behavior to study the risk and protective factors of suicide ideation. There are many risk factors for suicide ideation, mainly including biological factors, psychological factors and social environmental factors, such as personality traits, despair, academic problems, etc.; whereas the studies of the suicide ideation’ protective factors currently mainly cover the self-esteem and social supports. Most researchers are more concerned about the risk factors for suicide ideation, and only a few studies have focused on the protective factors of suicide ideation. Future research needs to focus more on the protection of suicidal ideation, the diversification of research methods and which factors can buffer the individual’s suicidal thoughts so that they do not take suicidal behavior.

文章引用: 陈 乾 (2016) 大学生自杀意念的危险因素和保护因素。 心理学进展, 6, 1127-1136. doi: 10.12677/AP.2016.611142

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