大菊头蝠冬眠期栖点选择的初步调查
Preliminary Investigation into Habitat-Point Selection of Rhinolophus luctus during Hibernation

作者: 黄太福 , 彭 乐 , 吴 涛 , 龚小燕 , 王 敏 , 张佑祥 , 刘志霄 :吉首大学生物资源与环境科学学院,湖南 吉首;

关键词: 大菊头蝠(Rhinolophus luctus)栖点选择喀斯特洞穴(溶洞)冬眠期武陵山种群保护Rhinolophus luctus Habitat-Point Selection Karstic Cave Hibernation Wuling Mountain Ranges Population Conservation

摘要:
大菊头蝠(Rhinolophus luctus)是湘西及武陵山地区体型最大而典型的洞栖型菊头蝠,2016年1~4月对其冬眠期间在喀斯特洞穴中的栖点选择模式进行了初步调查。在湘西州境内所调查的28个洞穴中,仅于11个洞穴中发现并记录了其孤居倒挂的20个个体。冬眠期间,多数大菊头蝠的栖点高度介于0.5~3 m,安全性低,易受到人为干扰或其他动物可能的捕食。栖点位置主要选择在离洞口距离20~40 m的范围内,该洞段的微环境易受到洞外天气或气象因子的影响,其体温变化的幅度也较大,介于7℃~17℃之间,并与该洞段栖点的微环境温度呈正相关。针对该物种的生存现状及生态特征,提出了相应的种群保护建议。

Abstract: The Woolly horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus luctus), the largest species in Rhinolophidae, is a typical cave-dwelling one in the Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Perfecture, Hunan Province, and even in the whole Wuling Mountain ranges also bordered on Chongqing, Guizhou and Hubei Provinces. From January to April of 2016, we made a preliminary field investigation into its habitat-point selection for hibernation in the Karstic caves of the Prefecture, and the results were as follows: Of the 28 investigated caves belonging to 7 counties (except Luxi), there were only 11 ones being of hibernating Woolly horseshoe bat, and totally 20 solitary inverted-roosting individuals documented. During hibernation, most of the horseshoe bat roosted in a 0.5 - 3 m height, with a very low security and special vulnerability to human interference or possible predation from other animals. Their roosting positions were relatively close to the cave entrance, mainly in the range of 20 - 40 m distance from the entrance, where the microhabitats were easily influenced by the outer-cave climatic or weather factors, so the body temperature of these bats lay between a wider range (7˚C - 17˚C) with a positive correlation by the habitat-point temperature. Finally, we inevitably put forward some corresponding population conservation recommendations roughly based on their eco- logical characteristics and endangered status.

文章引用: 黄太福 , 彭 乐 , 吴 涛 , 龚小燕 , 王 敏 , 张佑祥 , 刘志霄 (2016) 大菊头蝠冬眠期栖点选择的初步调查。 世界生态学, 5, 57-66. doi: 10.12677/IJE.2016.53007

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