“印度板块”研究回顾及思维再完善
—换个方式审视地球 暨庆祝中国地质博物馆建馆100周年(1916-2016)
Retrospective and Complement to Research on “Indian Plate”
—Change a Way to Look at the Earth

作者: 方晓思 :中国地质博物馆,北京; 常燕生 :北京大学出版社,北京;

关键词: 裂谷系欧亚板块印度-印支板块印度板块东经九十度海岭Rift System Eurasian Plate Indian-Indochina Plate Indian Plate Ninety East Ridge

摘要: 依据当今非洲大裂谷的发育过程可以推断出,2亿多年前由于受到裂谷系的作用,致使冈瓦纳古陆全面解体,出现了南美洲板块、非洲板块、澳大利亚板块、南极洲板块、印度-印支板块;之后裂谷系又逐渐发展成大西洋海岭、印度洋海岭、太平洋海岭。古生物学又证实,“印度板块”与“印支板块”都生存有三叠纪恐龙动物,这表明“印支板块”曾经是冈瓦纳大陆的一部分,与“印度板块”曾经也是一个相互连接的整体,即“印度-印支板块”。从冈瓦纳大陆分离出来,“印度-印支板块”于晚三叠世后期至早侏罗世初期,在赤道附近同“华南大陆板块”发生撞击,自此并入欧亚板块,并将冈瓦纳大陆的海生爬行动物鱼龙、棘皮类海百合及陆生恐龙等生物先后带入亚洲南部的贵州、云南、四川等地区。随着印度-印支板块与欧亚板块向北移动,印度-印支板块又受到来自“东经九十度海岭”的切割,新的裂谷系将其由南至北分成西部的印度板块和东部的印支板块。被分割的印度板块在“东经九十度海岭”和马尔代夫海岭合力推动下,向北移动,至喜马拉雅地区,再次与欧亚板块发生撞击,形成当今的地貌景观。两次撞击都与裂谷系相关联,因此对裂谷系的认识,有助重塑印度板块的运动轨迹,有助重新解释中生代以来众多的地质现象。

Abstract: At about 200 ma ago, Gondwanaland was split by a rift system, according to the development process of present East African Rift system, into South America Plate, Africa Plate, Australia Plate, Antarctic Plate and India-Indochina Plate. The rift system itself developed to the present Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Indian Ridges, and Pacific Ridges gradually. Triassic dinosaurs, found at both Indian and Indo-China plates, showed that Indo-China Plate was also a part of Gondwanaland and that Indian Plate and Indo-China Plate were located together as Indian-Indo-China Plate. When separated from Gondwanaland, and collided with South-China Plate, it was merged in Eurasian Plate at the Equator in Late Triassic-Early Jurassic period. The collision had brought Gondwana fauna like sea reptiles Ichthyosaurus, crinoids, and terrestrial dinosaurs to South China (Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, etc.). In its further movement northward, Indian-Indo-China Plate was split by the Ninety East Ridge into two parts from south to north: Indo-China Plate at its east and Indian Plate at its west. Indian Plate, driven jointly by the Ninety East Ridge and Maldive Ridge, moved northward and collided with Eurasian Plate again, at the region of present Himalaya, forming present Himalaya topography. The two collisions were caused by the forming of rift systems. So understanding the formation of the rift systems is the key to reconstruct the route of Indian Plate movement which in turns helps to interpret many geological phenomena happened since Mesozoic.

文章引用: 方晓思 , 常燕生 (2016) “印度板块”研究回顾及思维再完善。 地球科学前沿, 6, 315-330. doi: 10.12677/AG.2016.64033

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