Centennial Review of General Relativity

作者: 王令隽 :美国田纳西大学查塔努加分校物理系,美国 查塔努加;

关键词: 广义相对论宇宙大爆炸黑洞引力波General Relativity Big Bang Black Hole Gravitational Wave


Abstract: This article gives a systematic review of the theoretical framework, major predictions, experimental evidences of general relativity and its implications to other branches of science. It has been pointed out that, other than the (0,0) component of Einstein’s tensor field equation which reduces to the Newtonian law of gravitation under linear approximation, all other components either lead to divergence, or are in conflict with the fundamental postulation of relativity that no speed should exceed the speed of light, or defies physical interpretation. The review gives a detailed analysis of the three classical evidences of general relativity and has shown that none of these experimental evidences can stand scrutiny. The article also analyzed the two recent experiments (BICEP2 and LIGO) that claimed to have found experimental evidences of gravitational wave and black hole, and demonstrated their fallacies. It has been pointed out that the principle of relativity demands that any viable theory must have translational as well as rotational relativity, which requires general relativity to have a rotational transformation that can transform the Schwarzschild metric into the Kerr metric and vice versa. Calculations show that a general rotational transformation is in conflict with one of the fundamental postulations of relativity—no speed should exceed the speed of light, i.e., general relativity violates the principle of relativity. The article also gives a thorough analysis of one of the most important concept of general relativity—gravity comes from the curvature of space time, and gravity warps the space time. It has been pointed out that the curving of a geodesic is merely the bending of the trajectory of an object moving in gravitational field, which is not the curving of the space time itself. Moreover, the field equation describes the shape of equipotential, the curving of which is not the curving of space time either. The measure of curvature of space time is the Riemann curvature scalar R. Calculations show that the Riemann curvature and Ricii tensor of both the Schwarzschild metric and the Kerr metric—the only two known analytical solutions to Einstein’s field equation, vanish, which means that the space time is flat. The concept that gravity comes from the curvature of space time and gravity warps the space time is invalid. The review concludes that the Newtonian law of gravity is built upon the Keplers laws that represent enormous results of observational astronomy and has stood hundreds of years’ test by scientific research and engineering practice. It is still been checked every day by science and engineering, and has never failed the test. On the other hand, Einstein’s general relativity has a multitude of unsolvable inconsistencies in its fundamental postulations, theoretical framework, experimental tests, and it is completely powerless in practical applications. It is therefore incorrect to say that the Newtonian law of gravitation is only an approximation of the more accurate general relativity. As to the black home and the Big Bang cosmology derived and developed from general relativity, these are astrological theories that violate scientific logic. The author is strongly against brain washing the younger generations with the astrological and theological concepts such as multiverse, reverse of causality, time travel, high dimension, creation of the universe and so on. Physical science needs nothing less than a renaissance in the new century, returning to classical science from astrological paradigm.

文章引用: 王令隽 (2016) 广义相对论百年终评。 现代物理, 6, 99-123. doi: 10.12677/MP.2016.64011


[1] Misner, C.W., Thorne, K.S. and Wheeler, J.A. (1970) Gravitation. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.

[2] Ohanian, H.C. (1976) Gravitation and Spacetime. W.W. Norton & Company Inc., New York.

[3] Kerr, R.P. (1963) Gravitational Field of a Spinning Mass as an Example of Algebraically Special Metrics. Physical Review Letters, 11, 237-238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.11.237

[4] Clemence, G.M. (1943) The Relativity Effect in Planetary Motions. Reviews of Modern Physics, 19, 361.

[5] Weinberg, S. (1972) Gravitation and Cosmology, Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.

[6] Tolman, R.C. (1987) Relativity, Thermodynamics and Cosmology. Dover Publications, Inc., New York.

[7] Dicke, R.H. and Goldenberg, H.M. (1967) Solar Oblateness and General Relativity. Physical Review Letters, 18, 313- 316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.18.313

[8] Dyson, F.W., Eddington, A.S. and Davidson, C. (1920) A Determination of the Deflection of Light by the Sun’s Gravitational Field, from Observations Made at the Total Eclipse of 29 May 1919. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 220A, 291-333. https://dx.doi.org/10.1098%2Frsta.1920.0009

[9] Ostlie, D.A. and Carroll, B.W. (1996) Modern Stellar Astrophysics. Adison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc., Upper Saddle River.

[10] Adams, W.S. (1925) The Rela Tivity Displacement of the Spectral Lines in the Companion of Sirius. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 11, 382-387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.11.7.382

[11] Pound, R.V. and Rebka, G.A. (1960) Apparent Weight of Photons. Physical Review Letters, 4, 337-341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.4.337

[12] Kruskal, M.D. (1960) Maximal Extension of Schwarzschild Metric. Physical Review, 119, 1743-1745. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.119.1743

[13] Wang, L.J. (2000) Rotational Behavior of Einsteinian Space. IL Nuovo Cimento, 115B, 615-624.

[14] Wang, L.J. (2014) On the Flatness of Spacetime. Physics Essays, 27, 356-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.4006/0836-1398-27.3.356

[15] Wang, L.J. (2015) Flatness of Kerr Metric. Physics Essays, 28, 138-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.4006/0836-1398-28.1.138

[16] 王令隽. 《物理哲学文集》第一卷: 爱因斯坦宇宙模型与“近小远大”说[M]. 香港: 东方文化出版社, 2014.

[17] 王令隽. 《物理哲学文集》第一卷: 现代宇宙学的基本问题及DET理论[M]. 香港: 东方文化出版社, 2014: 18.

[18] Abbott, B.P., et al. (2016) Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger. Physical Review Letters, 116, Article ID: 061102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.116.061102

[19] Marzke, R.F., Wheeler, J.A., Chiu, H.Y. and Hoffman, W.F. (1964) Gravitation and Relativity. Benjamin, New York.

[20] 王令隽. 《物理哲学文集》第一卷: 科学上有没有万能的最终理论? [M]. 香港: 东方文化出版社, 2014.