昆明城市饮用水源地现状问题及保护对策
Current Problems and Protection Countermeasures for Drinking Water Sources in Kunming City

作者: 丁俊凯 :云南省水文水资源局,云南 昆明;

关键词: 水源地特征水质现状安全保障保护对策生态修复Characteristics of Water Source Water Quality Status Security Protection Measures Ecological Restoration

摘要:
针对昆明城市水源地水环境质量状况趋于下降的现实,对主要供水水源地走访和调查,分析其水资源特征、水环境质量状况、供水安全保障、保护现状,指出水源地存在生态环境脆弱、供水压力日益增大、面源污染严重等主要问题,提出“长期治理与近期治理相结合、治标与治本结合、工程治理与生物治理结合”的保护目标。同时,为保障现代新昆明经济社会的持续发展,确保城市供水水源地的水质长期稳定在II~III类,提出了加快水源保障工程建设,建立健全城市水资源战略储备体系和应急备用水源方案;强化取水许可管理和排污许可制度;有效改善水源区生态环境,建立地表水源地物理和生物隔离防护工程,营造绿色生态缓冲区;在水库周边乡镇结合新农村建设建立沼气池、小型污水净化处理和农村生活垃圾集中处理场,发展农业节水灌溉,减少化肥和农药施用量,全面推进以水土保持工程为核心的坡耕地治理,有效控制入库泥沙和面源污染等对策、措施和建议。

Abstract: Focused on the reality of declining of water environment quality, in the Kunming city, the serious of point source pollution and other major problems were found through surveyed main water supply source and analyzed characteristics of water resources, water environment quality, water supply security and con-servation status. There were some problems, such as the vulnerability of water source environment, the increasing of water supply pressure were pointed out. Long-term governance combined with recent go-vernance was proposed for conservation objectives by taking temporary solution and permanent cure, engineering control and biological control. Besides, to ensure the sustainable development of modern economy and society and the long-term stability in II - III class of water source quality, the protection countermeasures and suggestions, such as speeding up the water source protection engineering con-struction, establishing and perfecting the city water resources strategic reserves system and emergency water supply project, improving main forest ecological environment effectively, establishing surface water source physical and biological isolation protective engineering, building green ecological buffer, were put forward in combination with the new rural construction to build gas pool, small sewage purification treatment with the rural living garbage dump in the villages and towns surrounding of the reservoir, developing agricultural water-saving irrigation, reducing chemical fertilizer and pesticide apply content, taking the comprehensive advance of soil and water conservation engineering as the core of farmland management, effective control of incoming sediment and point source pollution.

文章引用: 丁俊凯 (2016) 昆明城市饮用水源地现状问题及保护对策。 水资源研究, 5, 271-277. doi: 10.12677/JWRR.2016.53034

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