信息心理学视野中的人文主义心理学
Humanistic Psychology: In the Perspective of Informational Psychology

作者: 李宗荣 * , 徐碧波 :湖北大学心理学系,湖北 武汉; 陆 健 :武汉大学心理咨询培训中心,湖北 武汉; 田爱景 :湖北大学计算机科学与技术系,湖北 武汉;

关键词: 心理学科学心理学人文心理学物质心理学信息心理学Psychology Scientific Psychology Humanistic Psychology Material Psychology Informational Psychology

摘要:
自心理学从哲学独立出来之后,在心理学的领域中一直存在科学与人文两种不同的研究传统。由于物理学、化学、生物学等物质科学的成功,“科学”成为自然科学的代名词;大多数心理学家必然地选择了自然科学的研究取向,人文取向的心理学家一直是不得志的“少数派”。在“科学与人文”两种文化对立的背景下,人们当然地认为,科学的就不是人文、人文的不可能成为科学;基于这样的语义理解,心理学家们普遍接受“科学心理学与人文心理学”的两分法。随着21世纪初叶理论信息科学的建立与完善,信息科学的世界观与方法论相继诞生,人们开始认识到:宇宙万物都具有“物质–信息”二重性;信息科学不仅能够与物质科学比肩而立,甚至更胜一筹;在信息时代中,人们重新认识科学:“科学 = 物质科学 + 信息科学”。在此基础上人们发现,人文传统的心理学所研究的对象不是心理现象的物质特征,而是它的信息特征;它不符合物质科学的范式、不能成为自然科学家族的一员,但是它符合信息科学范式、是信息科学家族的重要成员;这样,我们就很容易地得到一个新的认识:“科学心理学 = 物质心理学 + 信息心理学”。一百多年来备受排挤和边缘化的人文心理学家所坚持的思想理念,与“信息主义”的时代精神完全一致。三年多以来,我们提出和建立了一个“信息心理学”的知识体系。本文的主要目的是,考察人文主义心理学的信息科学的科学特性,探索人文主义心理学的实证主义研究路线;并且认定:只有它代表着心理学未来的发展方向。认知神经科学是必要的、有益的,它研究心理现象的“硬件”,即研究心理现象在神经系统级别上物质系统,它是心理学与神经科学的交叉学科;而心理学的基础学科研究心理现象的“软件”,即心理信息系统的组成、结构、功能、机理、出错与修复。

Abstract: After the independence of psychology from philosophy, in the field of psychology there have always been two different research traditions, i.e. science and humanity. Due to the success of material science, such as physics, chemistry, biology, etc., “science” becomes a synonym for natural science. So most psychologists must choose the research orientation of natural science, and then humanistic psychologists have been frustrated by the label of “minority”. Under the background of the conflicts between two cultures, i.e. science and humanity, people certainly believe that science is not humanity, in the same way humanity is impossible to become science; Based on this semantic understanding, psychologists have generally accepted the dichotomy between scientific psychology and humanistic psychology. As theoretical informatics was established and perfected, and the worldview and methodology of information science were created in the early time of 21st century, people began to realize that everything in the universe has “material-information duality”. Nowadays information science can not only stand shoulder to shoulder with physical science and even probably is more superior to it. In the information age, there is a new awareness of science: “Science = Materials Science + Information Science”. On this basis, it was found that the studying object of humanistic psychology is not material characteristics but information characteristics; humanistic psychology does not meet the paradigm of material science and cannot become a member of the family of natural science, but it is consistent with the paradigm of information science and is an important member of the family of information science. In this way, we easily get a new understanding: “scientific psychology = material psychology + informational psychology”. Over the past one hundred years, the idea insisted by the humanistic psychologists who has been excluded and marginalized is completely consistent with informatism, i.e. spirit of the times. Since June 2012, we have proposed a knowledge system of informational psychology. The main purpose of this paper is to study the scientificalness of humanistic psychology in the field of information science, to explore the positivism research approach of humanistic psychology, and to suggest that only humanistic psychology represents the future direction of development of psychology. Cognitive neuroscience is necessary and useful and studies the “hardware” of psychological phenomena, i.e., the material system in the nervous system level of the psychological phenomena, therefore it is also the interdisciplinary subject of psychology and neuroscience. However, a basic subject of psychology is the studies of the “software” of psychological phenomena, namely the composition, structure, function, mechanism, fault and restoration of psychological information system.

文章引用: 李宗荣 , 徐碧波 , 陆 健 , 田爱景 (2016) 信息心理学视野中的人文主义心理学。 社会科学前沿, 5, 260-269. doi: 10.12677/ASS.2016.52038

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