精神病态者的神经生理和犯罪行为特点及其司法启示
The Characteristic of Neurophysiological and Criminal Behavior in Psychopaths and Its Forensic Implications

作者: 宋 平 , 石美玲 , 邵珠镇 :中国刑事警察学院,辽宁 沈阳;

关键词: 精神病态神经生理犯罪行为犯罪矫治法庭证据Psychopath Neurophysiology Criminal Behavior Crime Correction Forensic Evidence

摘要:
精神病态是一种严重的人格障碍,其与暴力犯罪存在紧密联系。精神病态患者的眶额皮层、杏仁核可能存在功能缺陷,这可能导致其负性情绪加工和恐惧条件反射存在问题。精神病态患者的外周神经系统唤醒水平低,这可能导致厌恶学习能力降低。这些神经生理特征可能是精神病态患者发生暴力攻击和犯罪的高风险因素。精神病态罪犯的犯罪起始年龄早,犯罪程度高而且再犯率高,工具性攻击较多,犯罪行为的虐待性程度高。对于精神病态罪犯的干预需要结合神经生理、心理和社会各方面的因素综合开展。在法庭审判过程中,法官需要谨慎地解读精神病态患者的脑成像证据并给予客观公正的对待。

Abstract: As a severe personality disorder, psychopathy is related with violent crime. The orbital frontal cortex and amygdala dysfunction in psychopaths may result into their problems of processing of negative emotion and fear conditioning. The low arousal level may lead to the deficit of aversive learning in psychopaths. The above-mentioned characteristics may be the high risk factors of vi-olence and crime of the psychopaths. The age onset of crime in psychopaths is early in life, the se-verity of the crime and recidivism is high in individual with psychopath, and the instrumental ag-gression and the severity of cruelty of crime are high in psychopaths. The intervention of psycho-pathy needs to integrate the neural biological, psychological and social factors. In the court, the judge needs to analyze the psychopaths’ (f)MRI evidence carefully and treat it in an objective way.

文章引用: 宋 平 , 石美玲 , 邵珠镇 (2016) 精神病态者的神经生理和犯罪行为特点及其司法启示。 心理学进展, 6, 543-554. doi: 10.12677/AP.2016.65072

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