将气候变化的减缓/适应同时纳入贫困农村发展的研究与实践—以陕西长武县宇家山村为例
The Studies and Practice of Mitigation and Adaptation on the Climate Change to the Development in Poverty Rural Areas in Shaanxi—To Take Yujiashan Village in Changwu County as an Example

作者: 罗 坤 , 胡祖庆 , 胡想顺 , 赵惠燕 :西北农林科技大学,陕西 杨凌;

关键词: 气候变化减缓低碳减排适应扶贫农村发展Climate Change Mitigation Low Carbon Emission Adaptation Poverty Alleviation Rural Development

摘要:
目的:目前,气候变化已成为影响全球可持续发展的重要因素之一,也是导致致贫和返贫的主要因素之一。陕西省咸阳市亭口镇宇家山村位于陕西干旱的黄土高原,气候变化对这里的农业生态、农业生产带来了严重的影响。本研究以该村为试点,开展低碳、适应气候变化的贫困农村发展研究,为探索一条将“扶贫减贫工作与农村低碳适应可持续发展”相结合的路径。方法:1)建设低碳、节能、减排的抗震新村;2)通过多项因地制宜产业培育、拓展当地村民的生计途径,改善生态环境,提高村民的收入水平;3)在农业生产、生活和农民能力建设方面引入一系列适应、低碳和可持续发展模式,促进农村社区的低碳可持续发展。结果:1)全村共实现减排8593吨CO2,平均每人减排14.61吨CO2,如果中国农村(按8亿农民计算)都采用这种策略,仅此一项就为国家减排116.9亿吨CO2。2)为适应气候变化,建立了抗8级地震的新村,设置了2个逃生、避难场所、配备了应急设施。3)村民采用了比过去至少多1种的多样化的生计策略,设置太阳能杀虫灯40台、发释放天敌1500万头,秸秆还田、生物农药替代料20%的化肥、50%农药的使用,各种产业都选取了抗逆品种和防灾减灾措施。4)25名农民参与了灾害管理培训,建立村级灾害管理机构与机制;50名村民参与了合作社与电子商务培训,建立网店6个,使农产品销售现代化;一年8次的农业生产实时技术培训和跟踪,提升农民应对气候变化的能力。结论:为应对气候变化,将适应和减缓同时纳入到传统的可持续发展规划中比单独解决气候风险和减排更加有效,对于气候变化和贫困人群适应能力和恢复力提高之间更具体的链接方式和是在社区实现的最好路径。

Abstract: Objective: Currently, climate change has become one of the most important factors to affect the global sustainable development and it is one of the main factors to farmers stricken the poverty as well. The Yujiashan village is located at Ting Kou Town in Xianyang City, which is a component of the Loess Plateau of Shaanxi arid area. The climate change posed the significant influence on the ecological and agricultural production of this village. To explore a pathway of applying the prin-ciples of the sustainable development of reducing the carbon emission into the works of poverty alleviation in rural area, the current study takes this village as a pilot to conduct the research fo-cused on the development with reducing the carbon emission and adaptation to climate change in poverty rural areas. Methods: 1) Building the new village of low carbon emission, energy saving, and earthquake proofing; 2) Developing a number of industries associated to the local major Agricultural products, expanding the ways of livelihood for local farmers, improving the ecological environment and improving the income level; 3) Applying a series of development mode in adap-tation, low carbon and sustainable development to the agricultural production, farmer’s life and ability enhancement, in order to promote the development in rural communities with low carbon emission. Results: 1) The total CO2 emission reduction of the village had reduced 8593 tons, average per capita emission reduction was 14.61 tons. If above strategy could popularize to the rural area around China (in terms of 800 million farmers), there are 11.69 trillion tons CO2 emission reduction in each year. 2) To adapt the climate change, this village was built with resistance to earthquake with magnitude 8, and set up 2 escape and refuge places, equipped with emergency facilities. 3) Compared to the past, farmers adopted a variety of strategies to control the pests, including set up 40 solar insecticidal lamps, release the 15 Million natural enemies, straw returning to field, spraying the bio pesticides instead of 20% fertilizer and 50% pesticides, staple industries have chosen the resistant varieties and disaster prevention and mitigation measures. 4) Among them, 25 farmers had participated in the training about disaster management and established the organization and mechanism of disaster management in their village; 50 farmers were participated in the training related to cooperative and e-commerce and found 6 online shops, based on that, local agricultural products could be sale in modern ways; 8 times per year of technical training and tracking associated in real-time agricultural production and significantly improved farmers’ ability of response to climate change. Conclusion: In response to climate change, combined the adaptation and mitigation in the traditional sustainable development are more effective than separately considered the solution of climate risk and emission reduction, and the more specific way connects the climate change and improves the ability of adaptation and resilience for poverty population and is in community.

文章引用: 罗 坤 , 胡祖庆 , 胡想顺 , 赵惠燕 (2016) 将气候变化的减缓/适应同时纳入贫困农村发展的研究与实践—以陕西长武县宇家山村为例。 气候变化研究快报, 5, 116-125. doi: 10.12677/CCRL.2016.52015

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