同性恋的恐同内化:成因、影响及测量方式
Internalized Homophobia: Causes, Influences and Measurement

作者: 李龙威 :西南大学心理学部,重庆;

关键词: 恐同内化同性恋恐同内化测量量表Internalized Homophobia Homosexual Internalized Homophobia Scale

摘要:
恐同内化是指的性少数成员将歧视内化到自身的一种现象,本文通过整理以往研究发现,同性恋的恐同内化的成因包括对家庭环境的影响,宗教和传统性道德的影响,恐同欺凌的影响,对女性化的偏见等方面;同性恋的恐同内化的影响包括社会身份剥夺,消极的心理状态,高风险的性行为,高羞耻感等方面;我们对恐同内化的四种测量方式进行了简要的分析和概括,并对中国的恐同内化的研究现状进行了展望。

Abstract: Internalized homophobia refers to the phenomenon that sexual minority members put their fear and discrimination of gay men and lesbians towards themselves. We summarized researches con-cerning internalized homophobia and concluded that the causes of internalized homophobia were: the influence of family, the influence of religion and traditional ethics, homophobic bullying, bias toward feminine characteristic; the influences of internalized homophobia were: the isolation of group identity, negative state of mood, high frequencies of risk sex behaviors and high sense of shame; we also compared the four measurement scales of internalized homophobia and discussed Chinese research towards internalized homophobia.

文章引用: 李龙威 (2016) 同性恋的恐同内化:成因、影响及测量方式。 心理学进展, 6, 425-430. doi: 10.12677/AP.2016.64056

参考文献

[1] Adebajo, S. B., Eluwa, G. I., Allman, D., Myers, T., & Ahonsi, B. A. (2012). Prevalence of Internalized Homophobia and HIV Associated Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health, 16, 21- 28.

[2] Alexander, R. A. (1986). The Relationship between Internalized Homophobia and Depression and Low Self-Esteem in Gay Men. Doctoral Dissertation, University of California at Santa Barbara. Dissertation Abstracts Interna-tional, 47, 3977.

[3] Allen, D. J., & Oleson, T. (1999). Shame and Internalized Homophobia in Gay Men. Journal of Homosexuality, 37, 33-43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v37n03_03

[4] Blais, M., Gervais, J., & Hébert, M. (2014). Internalized Homophobia as a Partial Mediator between Homophobic Bullying and Self-Esteem among Youths of Sexual Minorities in Quebec (Canada). Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 19, 727-735.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232014193.16082013

[5] Bregman, H. R., Malik, N. M., Page, M. J., Makynen, E., & Lindahl, K. M. (2013). Identity Profiles in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth: The Role of Family Influences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 417-430.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9798-z

[6] Cass, V. C. (1979). Homosexuality Identity Formation: A Theo-retical Model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219-235.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v04n03_01

[7] Currie, M. R., Cunningham, E. G., & Findlay, B. M. (2004). The Short Internalized Homonegativity Scale: Examination of the Factorial Structure of a New Measure of Internalized Homophobia. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64, 1053-1067.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013164404264845

[8] D’Augelli, A. R. (2001). Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identities and Youth: Psychological Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.

[9] D’Augelli, A. R., & Patterson, C. J. (1995). Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identities over the Lifespan: Psychological Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195082319.001.0001

[10] Dew, B. J., & Chaney, M. P. (2005). The Relationship among Sexual Compulsivity, Internalized Homophobia, and HIV At- Risk Sexual Behavior in Gay and Bisexual Male Users of Internet Chat Rooms. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 12, 259-273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10720160500362306

[11] Goldfried, M. R., & Goldfried, A. P. (2001). The Importance of Parental Support in the Lives of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Individuals. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57, 681-693.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.1037

[12] Greene, D. C., & Britton, P. J. (2012). Stage of Sexual Minority Identity Formation: The Impact of Shame, Internalized Homophobia, Ambivalence over Emotional Expression, and Personal Mastery. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 16, 188-214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19359705.2012.671126

[13] Hequembourg, A. L., & Dearing, R. L. (2013). Exploring Shame, Guilt, and Risky Substance Use among Sexual Minority Men and Women. Journal of Homosexuality, 60, 615-638.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2013.760365

[14] Huebner, D. M., Davis, M. C., Nemeroff, C. J., & Aiken, L. S. (2002). The Impact of Internalized Homophobia on HIV Preventive Interventions. American Journal of Community Psy-chology, 30, 327-348.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015325303002

[15] Igartua, K. J., Gill, K., & Montoro, R. (2009). Internalized Homo-phobia: A Factor in Depression, Anxiety, and Suicide in the Gay and Lesbian Population. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 22, 15-30.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7870/cjcmh-2003-0011

[16] Jeffries IV, W. L. (2009). A Comparative Analysis of Homosexual Behaviors, Sex Role Preferences, and Anal Sex Proclivities in Latino and Non-Latino Men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 765-778.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-007-9254-4

[17] Kubicek, K., McDavitt, B., Carpineto, J., Weiss, G., Iverson, E. F., & Kipke, M. D. (2009). “God Made Me Gay for a Reason” Young Men Who Have Sex with Men’s Resiliency in Resolving Internalized Homophobia from Religious Sources. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24, 601-633.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0743558409341078

[18] Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

[19] Malyon, A. K. (1982). Psychotherapeutic Implications of Inter-nalized Homophobia in Gay Men. Journal of Homosexuality, 7, 59-69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v07n02_08

[20] Mayfield, W. (2001). The Development of an Internalized Homone-gativity Inventory for Gay Men. Journal of Homosexuality, 41, 53-76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v41n02_04

[21] McLaren, S. (2016). The Interrelations between Internalized Homo-phobia, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation among Australian Gay Men, Lesbians, and Bisexual Women. Journal of Homosexuality, 63, 156-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2015.1083779

[22] Meyer, I. H. (1995). Minority Stress and Mental health in Gay Men. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36, 38-56.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2137286

[23] Mishna, F., Newman, P. A., Daley, A., & Solomon, S. (2009). Bullying of Lesbian and Gay Youth: A Qualitative Investigation. British Journal of Social Work, 39, 1598-1614.

[24] Newcomb, M. E., & Mustanski, B. (2010). Internalized Homophobia and Internalizing Mental Health Problems: A Meta-Analytic Review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 1019-1029.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.07.003

[25] Nungesser, L. G. (1983). Homosexual Acts, Actors, and Identities. New York: Praeger Publishers.

[26] Pachankis, J. E., & Goldfried, M. R. (2004). Clinical Issues in Working with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 41, 227-246.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.41.3.227

[27] Ross, M., Kajubi, P., Mandel, J., McFarland, W., & Raymond, H. (2013). Internalized Homonegativity/Homophobia Is Associated with HIV-Risk Behaviours among Ugandan Gay and Bisexual Men. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 24, 409-413.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462412472793

[28] Ross, M. W., & Rosser, B. (1996). Measurement and Correlates of Internalized Homophobia: A Factor Analytic Study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 52, 15-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199601)52:1<15::AID-JCLP2>3.0.CO;2-V

[29] Sánchez, F. J., & Vilain, E. (2012). “Straight-Acting Gays”: The Relationship between Masculine Consciousness, Anti-Ef- feminacy, and Negative Gay Identity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 111-119.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-9912-z

[30] Savin-Williams, R. C., & Association, A. P. (2001). Mom, Dad. I’m Gay: How Families Negotiate Coming out. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

[31] Tajfel, H., Billig, M. G., Bundy, R. P., & Flament, C. (1971). Social Categorization and Intergroup Behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1, 149-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420010202

[32] Thoits, P. A. (1985). Self-Labeling Processes in Mental Illness: The Role of Emotional Deviance. American Journal of Sociology, 91, 221-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228276

[33] Vu, L., Tun, W., Sheehy, M., & Nel, D. (2012). Levels and Correlates of In-ternalized Homophobia among Men Who Have Sex with men In Pretoria, South Africa. Aids and Behavior, 16, 717-723.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-011-9948-4

[34] Wagner, G., Serafini, J., Rabkin, J., Remien, R., & Williams, J. (1994). Integration of One’s Religion and Homosexuality: A Weapon against Internalized Homophobia? Journal of Ho-mosexuality, 26, 91-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v26n04_06

分享
Top