The Research Process and Challengeof Logistic Sensors in Smart Cool Chain

作者: 邓昌建 , 蒋世奇 :成都信息工程大学控制工程学院,四川 成都 ;

关键词: 传感器冷链无线传感网络射频识别器件机理模型Sensors Cool Chain Wireless Sensor Network RFID Mechanism Model

摘要: 以自动化、信息化和网络化为主要特征的智慧冷链加快了物流传感器的研究进展:首先,为监测和记录冷链中的温度和相对湿度等数据,冷链的运输环境监测、集装箱智慧化、车辆智能定位等使用了一些新型的无线微型传感器;其次,为保证物品在冷链运输中的质量和品质特性,在物品保存和变化机理的检测中也使用了一些新型智能传感器;最后,与这两类传感器对应的大量数据处理与传输问题推动了冷链物流传感器的其他新技术的进展。为此,本论文回顾了智慧冷链中出现的传感器技术及其应用,介绍了冷链物流传感器的最新研究进展,并对其发展趋势与挑战进行了综述。

Abstract: Owing to its features of automation, information and network, the intelligent cold chain promotes the research process of logistic sensors: firstly, in order to monitor and record the real time tem-perature and relative humidity test data of cool chain, the transportation environment monitoring, container intelligence, truck smart position and so on adopt some new wireless sensors; secondly, in order to maintain the quality and fresh of food, the detection based on the mechanism of goods store and change adopts some new smart sensors; in the end, problems of large scale of data processing , data transmitting also promote the development of related sensor technology. So the paper reviews the sensor technology and its application occurred in cool chain logistic, introduces its newest research process, and gives a survey of its prospect and challenge.

文章引用: 邓昌建 , 蒋世奇 (2016) 智慧冷链物流传感器的研究进展与挑战。 传感器技术与应用, 4, 32-46. doi: 10.12677/JSTA.2016.41005


[1] 雷光临, 李俊. 基于物联网技术的智慧物流研究[J]. 物流技术, 2012, 31(8): 393-394.

[2] Bijwaard, D.J.A., van Kleunen, W.A.P., Havinga, P.J.M., Kleiboer, L. and Bijl, M.J.J. (2011) Using Dynamic WSNs in Smart Logistics for Fruits and Pharmacy. Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Seattle, 1-4 November 2011, 218-231.

[3] Ding, H., Li, R., Li, S., Han, J. and Zhao, J. (2013) MISS: Multi-Dimensional Information Sensing Surveillance for Cold Chain Logistics. IEEE 10th International Conference on Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Systems, Hangzhou, 14-16 October 2013, 519-523.

[4] Zoller, S., Reinhardt, A. and Steinmetz, R. (2012) Distributed Data Filtering in Logistics Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Transmission Relevance. 37th Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN, Clearwater, 22-25 October 2012, 256-259.

[5] Tanner, D.J. and Amos, N.D. (2003) Heat and Mass Transfer-Temperature Variability during Shipment of Fresh Produce. Acta Horticulturae, 599, 193-204.

[6] Nunes, M., Emand, J. and Brecht, J. (2006) Brief Deviations from Set Point Temperatures during Normal Airport Handling Operations Negatively Affect the Quality of Papaya (Carica papaya) Fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 41, 328-340.

[7] Ruiz, G.L. and Lunadei, L. (2010) Monitoring Cold Chain Logistics by Means of RFID. In: Turcu, C., Ed., Sustainable Radio Frequency Identification Solutions, INTECH, Vienna, 37-50.

[8] Ruiz, G.L., Barreiro, P., Rodriguez, B.J. and Rrbla, J.I. (2007) Monitoring Intermodal Refrigerated Fruit Transport Using Sensor Networks: A Review. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 5, 142-156.

[9] Ruiz, G.L., Barreiro, P. and Rrbla, J.I. (2008) Performance of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Nodes for Real-Time Monitoring of Fruit Logistics. Journal of Food Engineering, 87, 405-415.

[10] Montero, G.F., Brasa, A. and Montero, F. (2009) Seguimiento de Parámetros Agroambientales en Viñedo mediante Redes Inalámbricas de Sensores. Proceedings of V Congreso Nacional y II Congreso Ibérico AGROINGENIERÍA, Lugo, 28 September 2009.

[11] Wang, N., Zhang, N.Q. and Wang, M.H. (2006) Wireless Sensors in Agriculture and Food Industry-Recent Development and Future Perspective. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 50, 1-14.

[12] Craddock, R.J. and Stansfield, E.V. (2005) Sensor Fusion for Smart Containers. Proceedings of IEEE Seminar on Signal Processing Solutions for Homeland Security, London, 5-7 April 2005, 5.

[13] Luis, R.G., Pilar, B., Jose, I.R. and Lunadei, L. (2010) Testing ZigBee Motes for Monitoring Refrigerated Vegetable Transportation under Real Conditions. Sensors, 10, 4968-4982.

[14] Chotykul, N., Perez, L.C. and Torres, J. (2012) Effect of Model Parameter Variability on the Uncertainty of Refrigerated Microbial Shelf-Life Estimates. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 35, 829-839.

[15] Martinez, M.S., Saldana, M., Torres, J.A. and Kennelly, J.J. (2012) Effect of Pressure-Assisted Thermal Sterilization on Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Content in CLA-Enriched Milk. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 16, 291-297.

[16] Gayan, E., Torres, J.A. and Paredes, S.D. (2012) Hurdle Approach to Increase the Microbial Inactivation by High Pressure Processing: Effect of Essential Oils. Food Engineering Reviews, 4, 141-148.

[17] Escobedo, A.Z., Velazquez, G., Torres, J.A. and Welti-Chanes, J. (2012) Inclusion of the Variability of Model Parameters on Shelf-Life Estimations for Low and Intermediate Moisture Vegetables. LWT—Food Science and Technology, 47, 364-370.

[18] Segavia, B.K., Ramirez, R., Durst, R., Escobedo-Avellaneda, Z.J., Welti-Chanes, J., Sanz, P.D. and Torres, J.A. (2012) Formation Risk of Toxic Compounds in Pressure-Assisted Thermally Processed Foods. Journal of Food Science, 77, R1-R10.

[19] Almoacid, M.S. and Torres, J.A. (2010) Uncertainty of Microbial Shelf-Life Estimations for Refrigerated Foods Due to the Experimental Variability of the Model Parameters. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 33, 66-84.

[20] Mcnab, W.B. (1998) A General Framework Illustrating an Approach to Quantitative Microbial Food Safety Risk Assessment. Journal of Food Protection, 6, 1216-1228.

[21] 刘波, 周黎明, 鲁胜利. 电子废物中有毒有害物质的检测及处理. 中国环境科学学会. 中国环境科学学会学术年会论文集. 北京: 北京航空航天大学出版社, 2009: 531-535.

[22] Srivastava, S.K. (2008) Network Design for Reverse Logistics. Omega, 36, 535-548.

[23] 张峰. 广西电子废弃物回收物流网络构建[D]: [硕士学位论文]. 桂林: 桂林电子科技大学, 2009.

[24] 朱道立, 崔益明, 陈姝妮. 逆向物流系统和技术[J]. 复旦学报: 自然科学版, 2003, 42(5): 673-678.

[25] 宋亮, 王健, 徐公伟. 再制造逆向物流网络的多周期动态优化模型[J]. 绵阳师范学院学报, 2014, 33(11): 86-95.

[26] Jedermann, R., Poetsch, T. and Lang, W. (2014) Smart Sensors for the Intelligent Container. 2014 European Conference on Smart Objects, Systems and Technologies (Smart SysTech), Dortmund, 1-2 July 2014, 1-2.

[27] Lee, C.-T., Chang, C.-M., Kao, C.-Y., Tseng, H.-M., Hsu, H., Nien, C.-C., et al. (2014) Smart Insulating Container with Anti-Theft Features by M2M Tracking. 2014 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings), and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom), and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom), Taipei, 1-3 September 2014, 140-147.

[28] Chou, P.H., Lee, C.T., Peng, Z.Y., Li, J.-P., Lai, T.K., Chang, C.-M., et al. (2013) A Bluetooth-Smart Insulating Container for Cold-Chain Logistics. 2013 IEEE 6th International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing and Applications (SOCA), Koloa, 16-18 December 2013, 298-303.

[29] Carn, J. (2011) Smart Container Management: Creating Value from Real-Time Container Security Device Data. 2011 IEEE International Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST), Waltham, 15-17 November 2011, 457-465.

[30] Castro, M., Jara, A. and Skarmeta, A. (2011) Analysis of the Future Internet Capabilities for Continuous Temperature Monitoring of Blood Bags in Terrestrial Logistics Systems. Proceedings of the International Conference on Conver- gence and Hybrid Information Technology, ICHIT, Daejeon, 22-24 September 2011, 558-566.

[31] Becker, M., Koojana, K. and Carmelita, G. (2011) The Intelligent Container—Wireless Sensor Networks in Logistics. Proceedings of 19th ComNets-Workshop, Aachen, 11 March 2011.

[32] Diallo, O., Rodrigues, J. and Sene, M. (2011) Real-Time Data Management on Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 35, 1013-1021.

[33] Shelby, Z., Harke, K., Bormann, C. and Frank, B. (2012) Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). Internet Draft[R]; IETF CoRE Working Group, 12 March 2012.

[34] Miguel, C., Antonio, J. and Javo, A. (2012) Architecture for Improving Terrestrial Logistics Based on the Web of Things. Sensors, 12, 6538-6575.

[35] 李锦, 谢如鹤. 冷藏运输装备技术研究进展[J]. 流体机械, 2014, 42(5): 82-87.

[36] 肖莹, 刘德军. 农产品冷藏保温运输技术与装备研究[J]. 农机化研究, 2011, 33(1): 57-60.

[37] Ruiz, G.L. and Lunadei, L. (2011) The Role of Rfid in Agriculture: Applications, Limitations and Challenges. Computers & Electronics in Agriculture, 79, 42-50.

[38] Luis, R.G., Loredana, L., Pilar, B. and Robla, I. (2009) A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends. Sensors, 9, 4728-4750.

[39] Lunadei, L., Ruiz, G.L., Bodria, L. and Guidetti, R. (2012) Automatic Identification of Defects on Eggshell through a Multispectral Vision System. Food & Bioprocess Technology, 5, 3042-3050.

[40] Lunadei, L., Diezma, B., Lleo, L., Ruiz-Garcia, L., Cantalapiedra, S. and Ruiz-Altisent, M. (2012) Monitoring of Fresh-Cut Spinach Leaves through a Multispectral Vision System. Postharvest Biology & Technology, 63, 74-84.

[41] Abad, E., Palacia, F., Nuin, M., de Zárate, A.G., Juarros, A., Gómez, J.M. and Marco, S. (2009) RFID Smart Tag for Traceability and Cold Chain Monitoring of Foods: Demonstration in an Intercontinental Fresh Fish Logistic Chain. Journal of Food Engineering, 93, 394-399.

[42] Mattoli, V., Mazzolai, B., Mondini, A., Zampolli, S. and Dario, P. (2010) Flexible Tag Datalogger for Food Logistics. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 162, 316-323.

[43] Stainberg, M.D., Kassal, P., Tkalcec, B. and Steinberg, I.M. (2014) Miniaturised Wireless Smart Tag for Optical Chemical Analysis Applications. Talanta, 118, 375-381.

[44] Oprea, A., Courbat, J., Barsan, N., Briand, D., de Rooij, N.F. and Weimar, U. (2009) Temperature, Humidity and Gas Sensors Integrated on Plastic Foil for Low Power Applications. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 140, 227-232.

[45] Zampolli, S., Elmi, I., Cozzani, E., Cardinali, G.C., Scorzoni, A., Cicioni, M., et al. (2007) Ultra-Low-Power Components for an RFID Tag with Physical and Chemical Sensors. Microsystem Technologies, 14, 581-588.

[46] Kassal, P., Steinberg, I.M. and Steinberg, M.D. (2013) Wireless Smart Tag with Potentiometric Input for Ultra-Low- Power Chemical Sensing. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 184, 254-259.

[47] Fernadez, I., Asensio, A., Gutierrea, I., Garcia, J., Rebollo, I. and de No, J. (2012) Study of the Communication Distance of a MEMS Pressure Sensor Integrated in a RFID Passive Tag. Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering, 12, 15-18.

[48] Salmeron, J.F., Molina, L.F., Rivadeneyra, A., Vasquez Quintero, A., Capitan-Vallvey, L.F., de Rooij, N.F., et al. (2014) Design and Development of Sensing RFID Tags on Flexible Foil Compatible with EPC Gen 2. IEEE Sensors Journal, 14, 4361-4371.

[49] Yang, L., Rida, A. and Tentzeris, M.M. (2009) Design and Development of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and RFID-Enabled Sensors on Flexible Low Cost Substrates. Vol. 1, Morgan & Claypool Publishers, San Rafael, 1-89.

[50] Wu, X., Deng, F., Hao, Y., Fu, Z. and Zhang, L. (2015) Design of a Humidity Sensor Tag for Passive Wireless Applications. Sensors, 15, 25564-25576.

[51] Briand, D., Molina-Lopez, F., Quintero, A.V., Mattana, G. and de Rooij, N.F. (2012) Printed Sensors on Smart RFID Labels for Logistics. 2012 IEEE 10th International New Circuits and Systems Conference (NEWCAS), Montreal, 17-20 June 2012, 449-452.

[52] Abad, E., Zampolli, S., Marco, S., Scorzoni, A., Mazzolai, B., Juarros, A., Gómez, D., Elmi, I., Cardinali, G.C., Gómez, J.M., Palacio, F., Cicioni, M., Mondini, A., Becker, T. and Sayhan, I. (2007) Flexible Tag Microlab Development: Gas Sensors Integration in RFID Flexible Tags for Food Logistic. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 127, 2-7.

[53] Oprea, A., Barsan, N., Weimar, U., Bauersfeld, M.-L., Ebling, D. and Wöllenstein, J. (2008) Capacitive Humidity Sensors on Flexible RFID Labels. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 132, 404-410.

[54] Zampetti, E., Maiolo, L., Pecora, A., Maita, F., Pantalei, S., Minotti, A., et al. (2011) Flexible Sensorial System Based on Capacitive Chemical Sensors Integrated with Readout Circuits Fully Fabricated on Ultra Thin Substrate. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 155, 768-774.

[55] Virtanen, J., Ukkonen, L., Bjorninen, T., Elsherbeni, A.Z. and Sydänheimo, L. (2011) Inkjet-Printed Humidity Sensor for Passive UHF RFID Systems. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 60, 2769-2777.

[56] Vyas, R., Lakafosis, V., Rida, A., Chaisilwattana, N., Travis, S., Pan, J., et al. (2009) Paper-Based RFID-Enabled Wireless Platforms for Sensing Applications. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 57, 1370- 1382.

[57] Briand, D., Oprea, A., Courbat, J. and Bârsan, N. (2011) Making Environmental Sensors on Plastic Foil. Materials Today, 14, 416-423.

[58] Molina, L.F., Briand, D. and Rooij, N. (2012) All Additive Inkjet Printed Humidity Sensors on Plastic Substrate. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 166-167, 212-222.

[59] Courbat, J., Briand, D., Yue, L., Raible, S. and de Rooij, N.F. (2012) Drop-Coated Metal-Oxide Gas Sensor on Polyimide Foil with Reduced Power Consumption for Wireless Applications. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 161, 862-868.

[60] Courbat, J., Briand, D., Wollenstein, J. and de Rooij, N.F. (2011) Polymeric Foil Optical Waveguide with Inkjet Printed Gas Sensitive Film for Colorimetric Sensing. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 160, 910-915.

[61] Oprea, A., Courbat, J., Barsan, N., Briand, D., de Rooij, N.F. and Weimar, U. (2009) Temperature, Humidity and Gas Sensors Integrated on Plastic Foil for Low-Power Applications. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 140, 227-232.

[62] Molina, L.F., Vasquez Quintero, A., Mattana, G., Briand, D. and de Rooij, N.F. (2012) All-Additive Inkjet Printed Humidity and Temperature Sensors Fabricated and Encapsulated at Foil Level. The 14th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors, IMCS 2012, Nürnberg, 20-23 May 2012, 1122-1125.

[63] Fernández-Salmerón, J., Rivadeneyra, A., Martínez-Martí, F., Capitán-Vallvey, L.F., Palma, A.J. and Carvajal, M.A. (2015) Alberto J. Palma and Miguel A. Carvajal. Passive UHF RFID Tag with Multiple Sensing Capabilities. Sensors, 15, 26769-26782.

[64] Kandhai, M.C., Breeuwer, P., Gorris, L.G., Zwietering, M.H. and Reij, M.W. (2009) Growth of Cronobacter spp. under Dynamic Temperature Conditions Occurring during Cooling of Reconstituted Powdered Infant Formula. Journal of Food Protection, 72, 2489-2498.

[65] Wood, R. (1993) Deterministic Network Interdiction. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 17, 1-18.

[66] Israeli, E. and Wood, R. (2002) Shortest-Path Network Interdiction. Networks, 40, 97-111.

[67] Dimitrov, N., Gonzalez, M.A., Michalopoulos, D.P., Morton, D.P., Nehme, M.V., Popova, E., Schneider, E.A. and Thoreson, G.G. (2008) Interdiction Modeling for Smuggled Nuclear Material. Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management, Nashville, 13-17 July 2008.

[68] Jay, P., Jeffrey, T. and Zhou, X. (2010) Locating Sensors for Detecting Source-to-Target Patterns of Special Nuclear Material Smuggling: A Spatial Information Theoretic Approach. Sensors, 10, 8070-8091.

[69] Xu, H., Zhu, J. and Wang, B. (2015) On the Deployment of a Connected Sensor Network for Confident Information Coverage. Sensors, 15, 11277-11294.

[70] Gonzalea, H., Han, J., Li, X. and Klabjan, D. (2006) Warehousing and Analyzing Massive RFID Data Sets. Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Data Engineering, Atlanta, 3-7 April 2006, 83-92.

[71] Darcy, P., Pupunwiwat, P. and Stantic, B. (2011) The Challenges and Isues Facing the Deployment of RFID Technology. In: Turcu, C., Ed., Deploying RFID—Challenges, Solutions, and Open Issues, 1st Edition, InTech, Rijeka, 1-28.

[72] Chun, H.L. and Chin, W.C. (2011) RFID Data Processing in Supply Chain Management Using a Path Encoding Scheme. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 23, 742-758.

[73] Mahdin, H. and Abawajy, J. (2010) An Approach to Filtering Duplicate RFID Data Streams. In: Kim, T.-H., Ma, J., Fang, W.-C., Park, B., Kang, B.-H. and Ślęzak, D., Eds., U- and E-Service, Science and Technology, Vol. 124, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 125-133.

[74] Gonzalez, H., Han, J.W., Cheng, H., Li, X.L., Klabjan, D. and Wu, T.Y. (2010) Modeling Massive RFID Data Sets: A Gateway-Based Movement Graph Approach. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 22, 90-104.

[75] Bashir, A.K., Lim, S.J., Hussain, C. and Park, M.S. (2011) Energy Efficient In-Network RFID Data Filtering Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors, 11, 7004-7021.

[76] Bai, Y., Wang, F., Liu, P., Zaniolo, C. and Liu, S. (2007) RFID Data Processing with a Data Stream Query Language. Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Data Engineering, Istanbul, 15-20 April 2007, 1184-1193.

[77] Park, J., Hong, B. and Ban, C. (2009) An Efficient Query Index on RFID Streaming Data. Journal of Information Science and Engineering, 25, 921-935.

[78] Fan, H., Wu, Q., Lin, Y. and Zhang, J. (2013) A Split-Path Schema-Based RFID Data Storage Model in Supply Chain Management. Sensors, 13, 5757-5776.

[79] Ki, H.E., Seuong, J.L., Yeo, S.K., Lee, C.W., Kim, M.C. and Jung, K.K. (2011) Improved Kalman Filter Method for Measurement Noise Reduction in Multi Sensor RFID Systems. Sensors, 11, 10266-10282.

[80] Song, X., Li, X., Tang, W., Zhang, W. and Li, B. (2014) A Hybrid Positioning Strategy for Vehicles in a Tunnel Based on RFID and In-Vehicle Sensors. Sensors, 14, 23095-23118.

[81] 刘茂旭, 何怡刚, 邓芳明, 李兵, 张利华, 吴翔. 融合RFID的无线湿度传感器节点设计研究[J]. 电子测量与仪器学报, 2015, 29(8): 1171-1178.

[82] 于洁潇, 刘开华, 史伟光. RFID多跳邻域定位算法[J]. 仪器仪表学报, 2012, 33(12): 2680-2687.

[83] 佘开, 何怡刚, 李兵, 侯周国, 朱彦卿. 无源超高频RFID系统链路预算分析[J]. 仪器仪表学报, 2010, 31(5): 974-979.

[84] Antonio, S., Sara, B., Pedro, Y., Perles, A. and Serrano, J.J. (2012) An Ultra-Low Power and Flexible Acoustic Modem Design to Develop Energy-Efficient Underwater Sensor Networks. Sensors, 12, 6837-6856.

[85] Liu, Z., Liu, D., Zou, X., Lin, H. and Cheng, J. (2014) Design of an Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor for RFID Tag Chips. Sensors, 14, 17883-17904.

[86] Lee, S., Wang, L. and Fang, Q. (2010) A Low-Power RFID Integrated Circuits for Intelligent Healthcare Systems. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicene, 14, 1387-1396.

[87] Lien, S.-F., Wang, C.-C., Su, J.-P., Chen, H.-M. and Wu, C.-H. (2014) Android Platform Based Smartphones for a Logistical Remote Association Repair Framework. Sensors, 14, 11278-11292.

[88] 胡晓燕. 基于供应链绩效评定的物流成本评价体系研究[J]. 武汉理工大学学报(交通科学与工程版), 2003, 27(5): 687-689.

[89] 王璐超, 刘军. 无线传感器网络在物流中应用的关键技术与前景分析[J]. 物流技术, 2010, 29(3): 141-143.

[90] 毕思远, 李金峰, 徐臻, 等. 无线传感器网络在食品冷链物流监控中的应用研究[J]. 安徽农业科学, 2014(22): 7553-7556.

[91] 江峰. 无线传感器网络在智能物流中的设计分析[J]. 通信技术, 2013(5): 34-36.

[92] Laura W. Global Healthcare Cold Chain Logistics Market Report & Forecast (2012-2017). http://www.wnem.com/story/21987922/global-healthcare-cold-chain-logistics-market-report-forecast-2012-2017

[93] Li, K.A., Sohn, T.Y., Huang, S., et al. (2008) PeopleTones: A System for the Detection and Notification of Buddy Proximity on Mobile Phones. Proc. 6th Int’l. Conf. on Mobile Systems (MobiSys, 2008), 160-173.

[94] He, Y., Liu, Y.H., Shen, X.F., et al. (2013) Noninteractive Localization of Wireless Camera Sensors with Mobile Beacon. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 4, 333-345.

[95] Guha, S., Plarre, K., Lissner, D., et al. (2010) AutoWitness: Lo-cating and Tracking Stolen Property While Tolerating GPS and Radio Outages. ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks, 8, 29-42.

[96] Ionut, C., Bao, X., Mrttin, A., et al. (2010) Did You See Bob?: Human Localization Using Mobile Phones. Proceed- ings of ACM MobiCom, 149-160.

[97] 王亦璋, 陈一元, Hung Shang-Chih. 基于云端感测科技之智能物流服务系统[J]. 服务科学和管理, 2015, 4(4): 87-96.