论我国海员外派服务机构的机制及其法律地位—兼论外派海员劳动法项下的权益保护
Mechanism and Legal Status of China Seafarer Dispatching Service Agencies—Also on Protecting Rights and Interests of Dispatched Seafarer

作者: 阎 萍 , 吴晓梅 :天津源海律师事务所,天津;

关键词: 海员外派服务机构劳务派遣海事劳工公约Seafarer Dispatching Service Agencies Labor Dispatch Maritime Labor

摘要:
为保护派往国际航运劳务市场海员(下称外派海员)的权益,自1920年《水手安置公约》以来,国际劳工组织不断改善相关公约,就船东及招募安置机构(即我国俗称的海员外派服务机构)责任义务加以法律上的规范。自80年我国改革开放以来,我国派往国际航运劳务市场的海员队伍不断发展壮大,与之相适应,我国对外派海员的利益维护与对船东、外派服务机构的规范方面,也相继由国务院、商务部、交通部出台了一系列管理条例和部门规章。加之,因2006年《国际海事劳工公约》(简称MLC2006)业已生效,即使我国尚未加入该公约,则因该公约所设置的船旗国与港口国管理机制,使得我国的外派海员、外派服务机构,在外派实务中不得不遵守、履行该公约的相关义务。有鉴于此,我国交通部于2013年出台了《海员船上工作和生活条件管理办法》,以期符合MLC2006对于船员保护性的要求、对船东、外派服务机构的责任规范。在此背景下,笔者试图从对海员外派服务机构的机制与法律地位着眼,在法律规范上的变化与发展的探究中,从一定侧面反映对外派海员的权益保护问题必要性和紧迫性。

Abstract: To protect the rights and interests of seafarers who have been dispatched to international shipping labor market (hereinafter referred to as “dispatched seafarers”), International Labor Organization continually improve relevant conventions by specifying the duty and obligation of shipowners and seafarer recruitment and placement services (generally called “seafarer dispatching service agencies” in China) ever since the year 1920 when Placing of Seamen Convention (No. 9) was issued. Since the reform and opening up in 1980s, China has been dispatching more and more seafarers to international shipping labor market. In view of this, the State Council, Ministry of Commerce, and Ministry of Transport issued a number of regulations and department rules in succession in respect of protecting interests of dispatched seafarers and regulating shipowners and dispatching service agencies. In addition, because the International Maritime Labor Convention 2006 (hereinafter referred to as MLC2006) has already come into effect, even if our country has not yet joined the convention, the flag and port state control mechanism set by the convention actually makes our country’s dispatched seafarers and dispatching service agencies abide by and fulfill the obligations of the convention. To this end, in 2013 China Ministry of Transport issued the Measures for the Administration of the Seafarers’ Working and Living Conditions on Board in accordance with MLC2006 to the requirement of the crew protection, specification to the owner and dispatching service agencies responsibility. In this background, we are trying to reflect the issue of protecting rights and interests of dispatched seafarers by discussing the change and development of mechanism and legal status of seafarer dispatching service agencies in respect of legal norms.

文章引用: 阎 萍 , 吴晓梅 (2015) 论我国海员外派服务机构的机制及其法律地位—兼论外派海员劳动法项下的权益保护。 争议解决, 1, 39-46. doi: 10.12677/DS.2015.14009

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