Method Effects in Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Their Correlates

作者: 郭庆科 , 胡 杨 :山东师范大学心理学院,山东 济南;

关键词: Rosenberg自尊量表方法因素大五人格模型文化差异Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale Method Effects Big Five Personality Models Culture Difference


Abstract: There is an ongoing debate on the use of negatively worded items in Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES) and other personality measures. This study was designed to explore the following questions: Do the five positively and five negatively worded RSES items measure one factor or two oblique factors? Do negative wording effect and positive wording effect exist in Chinese culture? If the answer is yes, to what extend do they affect structural and criterion related validity of RSES? Do negative and positive wording effect abstracted from different personality measures exhibit congruent validity? Can they be considered response style or meaningful personality variables? What features can be observed in Chinese participants that differentiate them from Western ones? 525 undergraduates were recruited and were administrated RSES, BFI, STAI, CES-D, GHQ-12, IRI, WLEIS, GWB, and MCSD. The results showed: the positively and negatively worded items in RSES perform similar psychometric properties; Method effect can be observed both in positively and negatively worded items, which are detrimental to the construct validity of RSES; When one trait factor and two method factors are defined in CTCM, close model data fit result in; In RSES the size of positive method effect is much smaller than negative method effect; Method effects in RSES and other personality measures are similar in nature; Modest bias is confirmed in the present study, Chinese people show stronger tendency to admit negative aspects of their self-concepts. As a con-clusion, balanced use of positively and negatively worded items is encouraged. Advanced statistic method should be employed to control method factors and estimate the true relationships between constructs measured by different personality measures. Chinese people are dialectical and are more modest when assessing their self-esteem.

文章引用: 郭庆科 , 胡 杨 (2015) Rosenberg自尊量表中的方法因素及其相关物。 心理学进展, 5, 770-778. doi: 10.12677/AP.2015.512100


[1] Ang, R., Neubronner, M., Oh, S., & Leong, V. (2006). Dimensionality of Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale among Normal- Technical Stream Students in Singapore. Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social, 25, 120-131.

[2] Boduszek, D., Hyland, P., Dinghra, K., & Mallet, J. (2013). The Factor Structure and Composite Reliability of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale among Ex-Prisoners. Personality and In-dividual Differences, 55, 877-887.

[3] Boucher, H. C., Peng, K., Shi, J., & Wang, L. (2009). Culture and Implicit Self-Esteem: Chinese Are “Good” and “Bad” at the Same Time. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40, 24-45.

[4] Farh, J. L., & Cheng, B. S. (1997). Modesty Bias in Self-Ratings in Taiwan: Impact of Item Wording, Modesty Values, and Self-Esteem. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 39,103-118.

[5] Kim, Y. H., Peng, S., & Chiu, C. Y. (2008). Explaining Self-Esteem Differences between Chinese and North Americans: Dialectical Self (vs. Self-Consistency) or Lack of Positive Self-Regard. Self and Identity, 7, 113-128.

[6] Lindwall, M., Barkoukis, V., Grano, C., Lucidi, F., Raudsepp, L., Liukkonen, J., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2012). Method Effects: The Problem With Negatively Versus Positively Keyed Items. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 196-204.

[7] Marsh, H. W. (1996). Positive and Negative Global Self Es-teem: A Substantively Meaningful Distinction or Artifactors? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 810-819.

[8] Marsh, H. W., Hau, K.-T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In Search of Golden Rules: Comment on Hypothesis-Testing Approaches to Setting Cutoff Values for Fit Indexes and Dangers in Overge-neralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) Findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 320-341.

[9] Marsh, H. W., Scalas, L. F., & Nagengast, B. (2010). Longitu-dinal Tests of Competing Factor Structures for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Traits, Ephemeral Artifacts, and Stable Response Styles. Psychological Assessment, 22, 366-381.

[10] Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of Method Bias in Social Science Research and Recommendations on How to Control It. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 539-569.

[11] Quilty, L. C., Oakman, J. M., & Risko, E. (2006). Correlates of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Method Effects. Structural Equation Modeling, 13, 99-117.

[12] Schmitt, D. P., & Allik, J. (2005). Simultaneous Administration of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 53 Nations: Exploring the Universal and Culture-Specific Features of Global Self-Esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 623-642.

[13] Spencer-Rodgers, J., Peng, K., Wang, L., & Hou, Y. (2004). Di-alectical Self-Esteem and East-West Differences in Psychological Well-Being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1416-1432.

[14] Tomás, J. M., Oliver, A., Galiana, L., Sancho, P., & Lila, M. (2013). Explaining Method Effects Associated With Negatively Worded Items in Trait and State Global and Domain-Specific Self-Esteem Scales. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 20, 299-313.

[15] Urbán, R., Szigeti, R., Kökönyei, G., & Demetrovics, Z. (2014). Global Self-Esteem and Method Effects: Competing Factor Structures, Longitudinal Invariance, and Response Styles in Adolescents. Behavior Research Methods, 46, 488-498.

[16] Wang, J., Siegal, H. A., Falck, R. S., & Carlson, R. G. (2001). Factorial Structure of Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale among Crack-Cocaine Drug Users. Structural Equation Modeling, 8, 275-286.

[17] Wu, C H. (2008). An Examination of the Wording Effect in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale among Culturally Chinese People. The Journal of Social Psychology, 148, 535-552.