降雨强度对红壤坡面水文过程的影响研究
Effect of Rainfall Intensity on Soil Hydrological Process on a Red Soil Land-Slope

作者: 赵丹丹 , 吕殿青 , 李景保 :湖南师范大学资源与环境科学学院,湖南 长沙; 候旭蕾 :邯郸市第二中学,河北 邯郸; 刘小梅 :湛江市第二中学,广东 湛江;

关键词: 红壤坡面降雨强度坡面产流产沙强度入渗强度Red Soil Slope Rainfall Intensity Surface Runoff on Slope Erosion Process Sediment Rate Infiltration Rate

摘要:
了解土壤水文过程对于土壤养分流失的研究具有重要意义。本文通过室内模拟试验,研究不同降雨强度对红壤坡面产流、产沙、入渗等水文过程的影响,结果表明:1) 在相同坡度,不同降雨强度下红壤坡面的初始产流时间呈现出随降雨强度的增大而逐渐缩小的趋势;2) 不同降雨强度下的坡面产沙强度随时间的变化存在不同的分布特征,在55、70和85 mm∙h−1三个雨强下,产沙强度随时间先出现增长后以波状趋于平稳;而100和120 mm∙h−1两个雨强下的产沙规律略有不同,主要表现在产沙强度随降雨时间迅速增长并达最大值后逐渐减小,最后趋于平稳;3) 不同降雨强度下地表入渗强度随产流时间呈指数下降,坡面产流强度则呈对数上升趋势;4) 随着降雨强度的不断增大,地表产流总量呈现逐渐增加的趋势,入渗总量也逐渐增加,但蓄水比例逐渐减小。

Abstract: Comprehending soil hydrological processes is of great significance for the study of soil erosion. Effects of different rainfall intensities on runoff, soil erosion processes and hydrological process were studied on red soil land-slope by simulated rainfall experiment. The results show that: 1) the runoff starting times gradually shortened with increasing rainfall intensity in the same slope condition; 2) under different rainfall intensities, the sediment strength of red erosion had different distribution characteristics over time; at rainfall intensity of 50, 70 and 85 mm∙h−1, it grew at first and then achieved stable value gradually; at rainfall intensity of 100 mm∙h−1 and 120 mm∙h−1, sediment intensity was different from others; it rapidly reached a maximum and then gradually decreased to a stable value; 3) under different rainfall intensities, infiltration rate declined by the exponential function and runoff rate increased by logarithmic rising trend, when the time of rainfall increased; 4) with the rainfall intensity increasing, surface runoff amount and infiltration rate increased, but storage ratio decreased.

文章引用: 赵丹丹 , 吕殿青 , 候旭蕾 , 刘小梅 , 李景保 (2015) 降雨强度对红壤坡面水文过程的影响研究。 水资源研究, 4, 506-512. doi: 10.12677/JWRR.2015.46063

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