感知觉特性对小学科学观察的教学启示
Implications of Perceptual Characteristic on Observation of Primary Schools’ Scientific Teaching

作者: 李 青 , 孙铭明 :首都师范大学初等教育学院,北京;

关键词: 观察小学科学感知觉教学Observation Primary Schools’ Scientific Perception Teaching

摘要:
观察是最基本的科学研究方法之一,也是小学生构建科学认识的开端。本文研究了观察与感知觉之间的内在联系,总结出了与感觉相关的观察方法——放大法、转化法和对比法,并且发现知觉的选择性、整体性、理解性和恒常性分别影响着观察的目的性、顺序性、精确性及判断力。在小学科学教学中,教师可以运用感知觉的特性设计观察活动,达到教学目的并培养学生的观察品质。

Abstract: Observation is one of the most fundamental methods of scientific research, and also the beginning of students’ scientific understanding. Here, we studied the connection between observation and perception, and summarized some methods that related to sensation, i.e., amplification, conversion and comparison. We find that perception’s selectivity, integrity, understanding, and constancy have an influence on observation’s purposiveness, sequence, accuracy and judgment, respectively. Teachers can utilize the characteristics of the perception to design the observation teaching activities, which could realize the teaching purpose and cultivate the students’ observation quality.

文章引用: 李 青 , 孙铭明 (2015) 感知觉特性对小学科学观察的教学启示。 创新教育研究, 3, 148-153. doi: 10.12677/CES.2015.34026

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