维特根斯坦的语言哲学与语用学
Wittgenstein’s Linguistic Philosophy and Pragmatics

作者: 王宏军 :上海电机学院外国语学院,上海;

关键词: 维特根斯坦哲学语用学图像论语言游戏Wittgenstein Philosophy Pragmatics Picture Theory Language Games

摘要:
本文系统地阐述了维特根斯坦的语言哲学思想体系,即他的早期思想和后期思想。维特根斯坦的早期思想指他在《逻辑哲学论》中对语言本性的主要思考,我们总结为“图像论”。维特根斯坦的后期思想包括了语言游戏说、生活形式、规则遵守、家族相似性、私人语言以及意义即使用,特别是语言游戏,它充分体现出维特根斯坦的语用学思想:语言的使用必须有参与者,人们的话语都是一种言语行为,话语只有在特定的语境中才有意义。人们的话语有自己的意图,同时人们还要遵守语用原则与规则,只有这样交际的双方才能理解话语的意义,听话人才能了解说话人的话语意图,达到成功的交际。

Abstract: This paper has systematically expounded the ideology of Wittgenstein’s linguistic philosophy, which concludes two parts: his early thoughts and his later thoughts. His early thoughts refer to his consideration of the nature of language in his book “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus”, which we summarize as Picture Theory. His later thoughts include “language games”, “form of life”, “rule- following”, “family resemblance”, “private language”, and “meaning as use”. Particularly, the idea of “language games” fully embodies Wittgenstein’s pragmatic thoughts, that is, participants must be involved in the language use and an utterance of participants is a speech act which will be mea-ningful only in a specific context. Each utterance of participants has got its own intention. Mean-while, the participants have to observe the pragmatic principles or rules so that the two parties can understand the meanings of the utterances, that the hearer can understand the speaker’s intention to obtain the successful communication.

文章引用: 王宏军 (2015) 维特根斯坦的语言哲学与语用学。 现代语言学, 3, 146-153. doi: 10.12677/ML.2015.34019

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