Research on Fast Recovery from Link Failures Based on Openflow in Smart Grid
Abstract: In this paper, we design and evaluate algorithms for fast recovery from link failures in a smart grid communication network, addressing all three aspects of link failure recovery: 1) link failure detection, 2) algorithms for computing backup multicast trees, and 3) fast backup tree installation. Firstly, we design link-failure detection and reporting mechanisms that use Openflow to detect link failures when and where they occur inside the network. Openflow is an open source framework that cleanly separates the control and data planes for use in network management and control. Secondly, we formulate a new problem, MULTICAST RECYCLING, which computes backup multicast trees that aim to minimize control plane signaling overhead. We prove that MULTICAST RECYCLING is at least NP-hard and presents a corresponding approximation algorithm. Lastly, two control plane algorithms are proposed that signal data plane switches to install pre-computed backup trees. An optimized version of each installation algorithm is designed that finds a near minimum set of forwarding rules by sharing rules across multicast groups, thereby reducing backup tree installation time and associated control state. We implement these algorithms in the POX Openflow controller and evaluate them using the Mininet emulator, quantifying control plane signaling and installation time.
文章引用: 黄远丰 , 赵 煜 , 廖兵兵 , 王勇波 (2015) 基于Openflow的智能电网网络链路故障恢复研究。 智能电网， 5， 242-251. doi: 10.12677/SG.2015.55029
Bakken, D., Bose, A., Hauser, C., Whitehead, D. and Zweigle, G. (2011) Smart generation and transmission with co-herent, real-time data. Proceedings of the IEEE, 99, 928-951.
Yardley, J. and Harris, G. (2012) 2nd day of power failures cripples wide swath of India.
Birman, K., Chen, J., Hopkinson, E., et al. (2005) Overcoming communications challenges in software for monitoring and controlling power systems. Proceedings of the IEEE, 93, 1028-1041.
Bobba, R., Heine, E., Khurana, H. and Yardley, T. (2010) Exploring a tiered architecture for NASPInet. Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), Gaithersburg, 19-21 January 2010, 1-8.
McKeown, N., Anderson, T., Balakrishnan, H., et al. (2008) Openflow: Enabling innovation in campus networks. Computer Communication Review, 38, 69-74.
Caceres, R., Duffield, N., Horowitz, J. and Towsley, D. (1999) Multicast-based inference of network-internal loss characteristics. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 45, 2462-2480.
Cui, J., Faloutsos, M. and Gerla, M. (2004) An architecture for scalable, efficient, and fast fault-tolerant multicast provisioning. IEEE Network, 18, 26-34.
 Pointurier, Y. (2002) Link failure recovery for mpls networks with multicasting. Master’s Thesis, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.
 Mccauley, J. (2010) POX: A python-based Openflow controller. http://www.noxrepo.org/pox/about-pox/
Lantz, B., Heller, B. and McKeown, N. (2010) A network in a laptop: Rapid prototyping for software-defined networks. Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, Article No. 19.
 Rosen, E., Viswanathan, A., Callon, R., et al. (2001) Multipro-tocol label switching architecture. RFC 3031.
Luebben, R., Li, G., Wang, D., Doverspike, R. and Fu, X. (2009) Fast rerouting for IP multicast in managed IPTV networks. 17th International Workshop on Quality of Service, Char-leston, 13-15 July 2009, 1-5.
 Gyllstrom, D. (2014) Making networks robust to component failures. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Massachusetts.
Rotsos, C., Sarrar, N., Uhlig, S., Sher-wood, R. and Moore, A. (2012) OFLOPS: An open framework for openflow switch evaluation. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Passive and Active Measurement, Vienna, 12- 14 March 2012, 85-95.