中国民众对灾后心理危机干预的认知与态度的调研—以山东和四川为例
An Investigation of Chinese People’s Cognition and Attitude toward Postdisaster Psychological Crisis Intervention—Based on Shandong and Sichuan Province

作者: 周俊丽 :山东师范大学心理学院,山东 济南;华东师范大学心理与认知科学学院,上海; 王鹏 * , 代红 , 范宜平 :山东师范大学心理学院,山东 济南;

关键词: 灾后心理危机干预认知态度调研Postdisaster Psychological Crisis Intervention Cognition Attitude Investigation

摘要:
近年来中国自然灾害频发,这些灾害不仅造成巨大的经济损失,而且往往给灾民造成不可愈合的心理创伤,这需要及时对灾民进行有效心理危机干预。本研究通过对四川省和山东省的1195位中国民众进行问卷调查,了解不同层次的民众对灾后心理危机干预认知和态度的现状及其影响因素。结果发现:中国民众对灾后心理危机干预的认知水平较低,亟待提高;中国民众对灾后心理危机干预的态度较为积极正向,希望今后的心理危机干预工作更好发展;不同学历、不同居住地、不同省份、不同危机经历次数的中国民众对灾后心理危机干预认知和态度存在显著差异,这表明学历、居住地、省份和经历危机次数是影响中国民众对灾后心理危机干预认知和态度的因素。本研究为我国现存的心理危机干预工作的改进提供了实践依据,有助于有针对性地开展灾后心理危机干预的科普宣传工作,增强民众对灾后心理危机干预的客观认识;帮助政府完善灾后心理危机干预机制,提升灾后心理危机干预的质量。

Abstract: In recent years, big natural disasters occur frequently in China, and these disasters not only cause great economic loss, but also lead to people’s serious psychologyical trauma. To recognize the current situation and influence factors of Chinese people’s cognition and attitude toward postdisaster psychological crisis intervention, the questionnaires are administered to 1195 people from Shandong and Sichuan province. The results show: 1) The Chinese people’s cognition status of postdisaster psychological crisis intervention is rather passive, which is urgent to be improved; 2) Chinese people’s attitude toward postdisaster psychological crisis intervention are positive, and people hope the mechanism of post-disaster psychological crisis intervention could develop better; 3) The Chinese people’s cognition and attitude toward postdisaster psychological crisis intervention differ in education background, residence, province and experiences of crisis, and it indicates those factors influence people’s cognition and attitude towards post-disaster psychological crisis intervention. This study can provide a practical basis for improving our existing psychological crisis intervention, contribute to carrying out a targeted postdisaster psychological crisis intervention of popular science propaganda work, strengthen the objectivity understanding of postdisaster psychological crisis intervention of people, and help the government improve the postdisaster psychological crisis intervention mechanism and the quality of postdisaster psychological crisis intervention.


Abstract:

文章引用: 周俊丽 , 王鹏 , 代红 , 范宜平 (2015) 中国民众对灾后心理危机干预的认知与态度的调研—以山东和四川为例。 社会科学前沿, 4, 113-123. doi: 10.12677/ASS.2015.43018

参考文献

[1] 秦大河, 孙鸿烈 (2004) 中国气象事业发展战略研究——总论卷. 气象出版社, 北京.

[2] 张黎黎, 钱铭怡 (2004) 美国重大灾难及危机的国家心理卫生服务系统. 中国心理卫生杂志, 6, 395-397.

[3] 邱慧萍 (2004) 灾难性危机事件的心理干预. 江西农业大学学报, 11, 135-136.

[4] 金嫣 (2011) 自然灾害下政府应急管理中的心理危机干预研究. 内蒙古大学, 呼和浩特.

[5] Andrew, J.F. (2011) Psychic aftershocks: Crisis counseling and disaster relief policy. History of Psychology, 3, 264-286.

[6] Caplan, G. (1964) Principles of preventive psychiatry. Basic Books, New York.

[7] Kanel, K. (2003) A guide to crisis intervention. California MarcusBoggs, USA.

[8] Hu, X.H., Yang, Y.B., Liu, L., Liu, X.F. (2010) Early psychological intervention following a natural disaster: A study with a victim buried under rubble for 124 hours. Social Behavior and Personality, 38, 71-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2010.38.1.71

[9] Everly, G.S., Flannery, R.B. and Mitchell, J.T. (2000) Critical incident stress management (Cism): A review of literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 5, 23-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-1789(98)00026-3

[10] Flannery, R.B. and Everly, G.S. (2000) Crisis intervention: A review. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 2, 119-125.

[11] Everly, G.S., Hamilton, S.E., Tyiska, C.G., et al. (2008) Mental health response to disaster: Consensus recommendations: Early Psychological Intervention Subcommittee (EPI), National Volunteer Organizations Active in Disaster (NVOAD). Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13, 407-412.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2008.05.004

[12] 梁宝勇 (2003) 非典流行期民众常见的心理应激反应与心理干预. 心理与行为研究, 3, 223-230.

[13] 包晓 (2008) 论政府应急管理中的社会心理干预机制. 河南广播电视大学学报, 4, 11-12.

[14] Zhang, L.L., Liu, X., Li, Y.P., Liu, Y., Liu, Z.P., Lin, J.C., et al. (2012) Emergency medical rescue efforts after a major earthquake: Lessons from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The Lancet, 379, 853-861.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61876-X

[15] Acierno, R., Ruggiero, K.J., Galea, S., Resnick, H.S., Koenen, K., Roitzsch, J., et al. (2007) Psychological sequelae resulting from the 2004 Florida hurricanes: Implications for postdisaster intervention. American Journal of Public Health, 97, S103-S108.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2006.087007

[16] 金宁宁, 左月燃, 罗敏, 等(2000) 突发灾难事件的心理危机干预. 护理管理杂志, 1, 35-38.

[17] 廖晓明, 李小溪, 宋远斌, 等(2009) 创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)与汶川地震后心理救援. 中国现代医生, 8, 59-61.

[18] 徐芳 (2009) 地震灾害心理伤害急救措施研究. 临床急诊杂志, 2, 127-128.

[19] 杨慧, 宁宁, 朱红, 等 (2012) 震灾伤员救治医务人员再次应对大地震的心理应激反应研究. 现代预防医学, 7, 1720-1722.

[20] 徐春迪, 周旗, 郁耀闯 (2010) 普通公众对汶川8.0级地震灾害认知与响应测评研. 地震研究, 3, 336-343.

[21] 苏桂武, 马宗晋, 王若嘉, 等(2008) 汶川地震灾区民众认知与响应地震灾害的特点及其减灾宣教意义——以四川省德阳市为例. 地震地质, 4, 878-894.

[22] 刘燕 (2012) 我国政府自然灾害应急管理中的心理干预研究. 西北大学, 西安.

[23] 邢娟娟 (2007) 突发公共事件应急心理干预机制的构建. 中国安全生产科学技术, 3, 65-68.

[24] 刘春华 (2005) 灾害事故救援中的心理干预简析. 湖南公安高等专科学校学报, 3, 47-50.

[25] 万小艳 (2013) 我国突发事件心理危机干预存在的问题及对策研究. 湖北省社会主义学院学报, 4, 86-89.

分享
Top