论湖南省新晃县饮用水源农业保护对策
The Measures to Protect the Source of Drinking Water in Xinhuang County, Hunan Province

作者: 蒲光儒 :湖南省新晃县农业局,湖南 新晃县;

关键词: 饮用水源农业保护对策Drinking Water Resource Agriculture Protection Measures

摘要: 饮用水源安全与保护已成为社会关注的热点。本文分析了新晃县种植业中的氮磷、农药、农业投入品废弃物、作物秸秆以及畜禽养殖的粪便与污水、水产养殖对饮用水源的污染威胁,农业源排放的水污染物种类多,化学需氧量(COD)、总氮(TN)、氨氮(NH3-N)、总磷(TP)、重金属等污染物数量较大,流入水环境的污染物中约4成来自农业源,农业生产已是水环境质量恶化的来源之一。提出新晃县饮用水源农业保护的技术路线,阐述了饮用水源农业保护的技术体系:即农业生产上推广清洁生产,发展循环农业、生态农业,开展乡村清洁工程建设,推广环境友好型施肥技术,控制肥料污染,推广农药减量化技术,控制农药污染,推广作物秸秆资源化利用技术,控制秸秆污染,推广农业投入品废弃物收集处理,控制白色污染,推广节能减排耕作技术,减轻氮磷污染;工程上重点建设田间杀虫灯、农田生态截污基础设施、田间农药肥料瓶袋收集池、有机废弃物堆沤发酵池、禽养殖污染防治设施、生活污水净化处理系统等基础设施;强化农业投入品监管、养殖污染防治监管。

Abstract: The safety and protection of drinking water have become a hot social concern. Taking Xinhuang County of Hunan Province in South China as an example, this article analyzes the threat to the quality and safety of drinking water caused by the pollutants from the following things: nitrogen, phosphorus fertilizer as well as agricultural input wastes, crop straws, animal wastes, aquaculture sewage, aquaculture, etc. As the agricultural pollution is not dealt in time, the drinking water can’t be protected adequately with COD, TN, NH3-N, TP—some heavy metals into the water environment. We can draw a conclusion that 40% of the pollution of drinking water results from agriculture production, which is also one of the reasons for the poor environment of the source of water. To deal with the pollution of the source of drinking water, we should first protect the source of drinking water in the process of agricultural production. Some measures have also been put forward. On one hand, we have some agriculture technology widely used. First, it is necessary to promote friendly production, develop recyclable agriculture and ecological agriculture, and build up some rural cleaning programs. Second, the technology of fertilizing the crops which is friendly to environment should be popularized, and the pollution caused by fertilizer and pesticide by popularizing the technology of using less pesticide as well as using crop straws as some resources to control the straw pollution should be controlled. Last, we should make the technology be widely used to deal with wastes left in the process of production to control white pollution and popularize the agricultural technology which can save some energy and reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and the pollution caused by nitrogen and phosphorus. On the other hand, we attach the importance to the construction of some equipment, such as laying some lamps beside the fields which can kill insects, having the fields equipped with some based equipments to keep the pollutants out. At the same time, some pools can be dug where the empty pesticide and fertilizer bags or bottles are stored; organic wastes can be fermented and so on. Further the agricultural inputs and the aquaculture pollution should be supervised.

文章引用: 蒲光儒 (2015) 论湖南省新晃县饮用水源农业保护对策。 水资源研究, 4, 387-393. doi: 10.12677/JWRR.2015.44048

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