华北大气本底微量气体与颗粒物的长期变化
Long-Term Variation of Trace Gases and Particulate Matter at an Atmospheric Background Station in North China

作者: 白建辉 , 吴翼美 , 柴文海 , 王普才 , 王庚辰 :中国科学院大气物理研究所中层大气与全球环境探测开放实验室,北京;

关键词: 氮氧化物二氧化硫臭氧颗粒物兴隆站Nitrogen Oxides Sulfur Dioxide Ozone Particulate Matter Xinglong Station

摘要:
2005年5月22日~2015年1月31日,在中国科学院大气本底观测网兴隆站开展了对微量气体(NOx、SO2、O3)、颗粒物(PM2.5)的连续观测,获得了它们的长期变化特征。近10年,兴隆大气中气体和颗粒物(NOx、SO2、O3、PM2.5)的浓度表现出明显的月、季节、年际变化特征;NO2和SO2浓度表现出下降的趋势,它们的年减少率分别为3.37%、0.78%。但是,近10年来O3却表现出增长的趋势,其年增长率为1.71%;在2009~2014年,PM2.5也表现出增长趋势,其年增长率为0.91%。兴隆气体、颗粒物、能见度的变化特征揭示了大气中气液固相物质经化学和光化学过程生成高浓度O3和细颗粒物PM2.5的机制。根据对测量数据的综合分析,控制北京以及华北大气污染应该考虑:1) 首要控制各类人为挥发性有机物的源排放,2) 其次,继续加大控制各类NOx和SO2的源排放。从而减少参与大气光化学反应的反应物以及由光化学过程产生的二次污染物(O3和PM2.5)的生成。PM2.5与O3 × NO2 × SO2月均值之间表现出有较好的一致性,这表明控制各类污染物(包括一次和二次污染物)对于控制颗粒物PM2.5的产生来说都是必不可少的,而且还要考虑同步控制O3光化学污染。

Abstract: From 22 May, 2005 to 31 January, 2015, measurements of trace gases (NOx, SO2 and O3) and parti-culate meter (PM2.5) at Xionglong station, an atmospheric background observation network of Chinese Academy of Sciences were carried out. Long-term variations of NOx、SO2、O3 and PM2.5 were obtained. During recent 10 years, NOx、SO2、O3 and PM2.5 displayed evident monthly, seasonal, and annual variations generally; NOx and SO2 showed decrease trends at the rate of 3.37% and 0.78% per year, respectively; but, O3 displayed an increase trend at the rate of 1.71% per year and PM2.5 also indicated an increase trend at the rate of 0.91% per year during 2009-2014. The variations of gases, partculate mater PM2.5 and visibility at Xinglong revealed a mechanism that high concen-trations of O3 and particulate matter were produced by gases, liquids and particles (GLPs) in the chemical and photochemical reactions. On the basis of analyzing gases and particulate matter, in controlling air pollution in Beijing and North China, we should consider 1) to control all source emissions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds primarily, 2) to step up efforts in controlling all source emissions of NOx and SO2, so as to decrease the reactants taking part in the chemical and photochemical reactions in the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants, e.g., O3 and PM2.5. There were similar variations between monthly PM2.5 and O3 × NO2 × SO2, indicating that it is essential to control the emissions of all pollutants (including primary and secondary pollutants) in controlling PM2.5 pollution. Therefore, it is suggested that O3 photochemical pollution should be considered synchronously.

文章引用: 白建辉 , 吴翼美 , 柴文海 , 王普才 , 王庚辰 (2015) 华北大气本底微量气体与颗粒物的长期变化。 地球科学前沿, 5, 248-263. doi: 10.12677/AG.2015.53025

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