不同育苗方式麦后移栽棉生长发育及产量特点
Characteristics of Growing & Development and Yield of Transplanting Cotton after Winter Wheat Harvest in Different Seedling Ways

作者: 李伶俐 , 李 文 , 马宗斌 , 朱 伟 :河南农业大学农学院,河南 郑州; 郭红霞 , 杨铁钢 :河南省农业科学院经济作物研究所,河南 郑州;

关键词: 不同育苗方式麦后移栽生长发育产量Seedling Ways Transplanting after Winter Wheat Harvest Growing Development Yield

摘要:
在大田条件下,研究了不同育苗方式麦后移栽棉花的生长发育及产量特点,结果表明:传统营养钵育苗麦后移栽棉与两苗互作育苗麦后移栽棉的生育进程、产量构成及子棉产量和霜前子棉产量基本相同,与麦后直播棉相比,现蕾期和开花期提早26~28 d,吐絮期提早26~27 d,有效结铃期延长27~28 d,单株铃数显著增加35.5%~39.4%,优质桃数(伏桃 + 早秋桃)提高74%~80.3%,平均铃重增加15.4%~ 15.5%,子棉产量极显著提高39.5%~41.7%,霜前子棉产量极显著提高79.75%~80.5%,霜前花率达86.4%~86.6%,提高了近20个百分点。同时,棉花两苗互作育苗实现了专业化、商业化和规模化育苗,利于机械移栽,可以完全替代棉花传统营养钵育苗,推动麦后机械化移栽棉的发展,稳定棉花生产,实现小麦棉花两熟双高产。

Abstract: Under field condition, the characteristics of growing & development and yield of cotton over various seedling ways were studied after winter wheat harvest. The results indicated that the development progress, yield components, seed cotton yield and the pre-frost seed cotton yield of transplanting cotton were almost same both under the traditional nutritional bowl grow seedlings after winter wheat harvest and under the technique of factory mutual aid grow seedlings. Compared with the treatment of direct-seeding, budding period and flowering period 26 - 28 d earlier, boll opening stage 26 - 27 d earlier, effective boll setting period prolonged 27 - 28 d, boll number per plant increased by 35.5% - 35.5%, high-quality boll number (the boll in Summer dog days + early autumn boll) increased by 74% - 80.3%, the average bell weight increased by 15.4% - 5.4%, un-ginned cotton yield significantly increased by 39.5% - 41.7%, the unginned cotton yield before frost significantly improved 79.75% - 80.5%, the flower proportion before frost was 86.4% - 86.6% (increased by nearly 20 percentages). Meanwhile, the technique of the cotton factory mutual aid grow seedlings with wheat in same hole has realized specification, commercialization and large scale grow seeding, which favor the cotton mechanized transplanting, completely replace traditional nutritional bowl grow seedlings, promote the development of mechanized transplanting cotton, stabilize cotton production, and realize the double high yields of wheat-cotton double cropping system.

文章引用: 李伶俐 , 郭红霞 , 李 文 , 马宗斌 , 朱 伟 , 杨铁钢 (2015) 不同育苗方式麦后移栽棉生长发育及产量特点。 农业科学, 5, 76-80. doi: 10.12677/HJAS.2015.53012

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