爱努语动词与人称词缀的关系和运用研究
A Study of Relationships and Usages of Verbs and Personal Affixes in Ainu Language

作者: 江仁杰 :香港城市大学亚洲及国际学系,香港;

关键词: 爱努语人称词缀动词日本以外地区的爱努语教育Ainu Language Personal Affixes Verbs Ainu Language Education outside Japan

摘要:
爱努语是日本原住民族爱努人的语言。自二十世纪开始,以爱努语作为母语的人口不断减少,现在爱努语已被视为濒临灭绝危机的语言。本文主要分析爱努语文法中,动词与人称词缀(personal affix)的关系,以及运用上的课题。在爱努语的句子中,人称代名词并非必要,但是动词必须连接人称词缀,以指明人称。因此,人称词缀在爱努语中是不可缺少的部分。另一方面,爱努语的动词有自动词和他动词之分,某些动词更拥有单数和复数形。动词的类型和单复数形的不同,也会使人称词缀与动词的接续产生变化。然而,有关人称词缀与动词的关系和运用,仍然存在着不少疑问,因此有进一步研究的必要。除了动词与人称词缀的关系外,还会根据笔者对日本以外地区的爱努语教育的研究结果,提出有关爱努语教育的意见。

Abstract: Ainu language is spoken by Ainu people, aborigines of Japan, who now mainly live in Hokkaido of Japan. The population of native speakers of Ainu people has been decreasing since the 20th century and Ainu language is now widely considered as an endangered language. This paper examines relationships and usages of personal affixes and verbs in Ainu language. In Ainu language, personal pronoun is not necessary in a sentence. However, it is necessary to use personal affixes with verbs in order to clarify the subject of a sentence. Thus, personal affix is an irreplaceable element in Ainu language. At the same time, there are transitive and intransitive verbs in Ainu language and some of them have singular and plural forms as well. Personal affixes of transitive and intransitive verbs are different, and the singular and plural forms of a verb also determine the personal affix of a verb. There are questions still remaining regarding usages and relationships between personal affixes and verbs in Ainu language which worth further studying. Apart from the study of usages and relationships between personal affixes and verbs, I will also make suggestions to Ainu language education based on my research on Ainu language education outside Japan.

文章引用: 江仁杰 (2015) 爱努语动词与人称词缀的关系和运用研究。 现代语言学, 3, 19-31. doi: 10.12677/ML.2015.31003

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