Theoretical Explanation and Neural Mechanism of the “Hypercorrection” Effect
Abstract: Hypercorrection refers to the phenomenon that after the correct answers of questions are fed back to the individual in the test, in the following tests, comparing to the wrong questions of low confidence level, those of high confidence level are more likely to be corrected. There have been three kinds of theories to explain the phenomenon. Attention theory holds the view that people feel surprised when they have failed in questions which they are sure to get the right answers, so, it will arouse their attention and people will spend more time learning the correct answers. Familiarity theory points out that people have known the knowledge of the questions of high confidence level, and learning the information existing in the memory is much easier than learning new knowledge. Recent study area theory tries to explain this phenomenon from a teaching perspective that learning knowledge in recent study area is not difficult, but it will not be extracted directly without relearning (e.g. feedback), so the feedback itself is the key. Hypercorrection’s neural mechanism study found that the brain regions of metamemory which does not match are involved in error correction process; especially dorsolateral prefrontal is activated only in the high- confidence but wrong answers, which is the same as right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. So dorsolateral prefrontal is the inhibition mechanism of false memories. In future research we should pay more attention to the areas of some special groups, such as memory disorder and learning disabilities; this is extremely valuable to know human advanced cognitive process.
文章引用: 包文莉 , 辛媛媛 (2014) “矫枉过正”效应的理论解释及其神经机制。 心理学进展， 4， 1006-1011. doi: 10.12677/AP.2014.47129
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