植物生理生态学因素对金属矿床生物地球化学异常形成的影响
Effect of Plant Physiological Ecology Factors on the Formation of Metalliferous Deposit Biogeochemical Anomaly

作者: 宋慈安 , 雷良奇 :桂林理工大学,地球科学学院,广西隐伏金属矿产勘查重点实验室,桂林; 宋 玮 :广东工业大学计算机学院,广州; 杨仲平 :中国有色桂林矿产地质研究院有限公司,桂林;

关键词: 生理生态学因素生物地球化学异常金属矿床Physiological Ecology Factors Biogeochemical Anomaly Metalliferous Deposit

摘要:
采用化学光谱和透射电子显微镜等测试手段研究了广西几个金矿和铅锌矿的生物地球化学异常及植物细胞微观特征。发现:矿区生物地球化学异常和土壤地球化学异常在量和质上具有明显的内在同一性;矿区植物对元素的吸收过程具有被胁迫吸收和屏障效应的双重生理生态特征;矿床上部生长的植物细胞中出现了大量的金属聚集体,在液胞中或沿植物细胞壁及膜边缘沉淀,使细胞内部结构遭受一定程度的破坏。高金属异常环境与植物的被胁迫吸收/屏障效应是植物地球化学异常形成的外因和内因。一般的生物地球化学异常造成的对植物的毒害可能只达到细胞或组织结构的水平。矿区植物体内的金属量是在屏蔽效应还起作用,植物的器官或个体还未出现明显受害症状时的聚集量。金属在植物体内聚集或耐受的机制主要是细胞液胞的区室化和细胞壁的固定作用,植物所能耐受的量,可以从植物细胞中金属聚集体的能谱成分分析数据或生物地球化学的异常的极大值或异常下限值进行大致地估计。

Abstract: We studied the characteristics of biogeochemical anomaly and plant cell microscopic features by chemical spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope in several gold deposits and lead zinc deposits, Guangxi. Through this study we found that biogeochemical anomaly in the mining area has obvious internal identity with soil geochemical anomaly in material quantity and quality, the plant grown in mining area has two physiological ecology characteristics which are stress absorption and shielding effects, and a large number of metal aggregates appear on the cells of plant grown in ore deposits soil, and they subside in cell vacuole or along cell wall and film border, making internal structure of the cells be subjected to a certain degree of damage. A high metal content of environment and plant stress absorption/shielding effects is external and internal factors of biogeochemical anomaly formation, and toxicity to plant caused by general biogeochemical anomaly may only reach the level of cell or tissue. The metal amounts of the plant body in mining area is the aggregation amounts when shielding-effect is still working and plant organ or individual damage has not yet occurred. Mechanisms of accumulation or tolerance of metal in plant body are mainly cell compartmentalization or cell wall fixation, and plant’s tolerance amount can be roughly estimated through the analytical results of metal aggregates in the plant cells by energy spectrometer or the maximum or lower value of biogeochemical anomaly.

文章引用: 宋慈安 , 宋 玮 , 雷良奇 , 杨仲平 (2014) 植物生理生态学因素对金属矿床生物地球化学异常形成的影响。 地球科学前沿, 4, 349-360. doi: 10.12677/AG.2014.46042

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