The Restrained Eaters’ Disinhibition Effect
Abstract: Restrained eaters usually control their weight by restraint food-intake, but in fact they often indulge in overeating; this made their weight control model cannot be reached. In all factors that can induce disinhibition eating, preload is mostly researched and most classical. Therefore, this research sought to make a review about this phenomenon. We make the analysis and systematic exposition from the questionnaires, the influence factors, the mental mechanism, and prospects of future study.
文章引用: 王 维 , 陈 红 , 苏艳华 , 韦春丽 , 孟 鲁 (2014) 限制性饮食者的去抑制效应。 心理学进展， 4， 881-888. doi: 10.12677/AP.2014.47114
 孔繁昌 (2012). 限制性饮食者对食物线索注意偏向的神经机制. 博士论文, 重庆: 西南大学.
 Anita, J., Nicole, T., Katrien, S., et al. (2003). Overweight children overeat after exposure to food cues. Eating Behaviors, 4, 197-209.
 Bathalon, G. P., Tucker, K. L., Hays, N. R., et al. (2000). Psychological measures of eating behavior and the accuracy for 3 common dietary assessment methods in healthy postmenopausal women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 3, 739-745.
 Canetti, L., Bachar, E., & Berry, E. M. (2002). Food and emotion. Behavioural Processes, 60, 157-164.
 Chambers, L., Yeomans, M. R. (2011). Individual differences in satiety response to carbohydrate and fat. Predictions from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Appetite, 56, 316-323.
 Epstein, L. H., Leddy, J. J., Temple, J. L., et al. (2007). Food reinforcement and eating. A multilevel analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 884-906.
 French, S. A. (1992). Restraint, food choice, and cognitions. Addictive Behaviors, 17, 273-281.
 Gorman, W. F. (1995). Benign aging or Alzheimer disease? The Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association, 9, 383-391.
 Graaf, C. D., & Hulshof, T. (1996). Effects of weight and energy content of preloads on subsequent appetite and food intake. Appetite, 26, 139-151.
 Heatherton, T. F., Herman, C. P., Polivy, J., et al. (1988). The (mis)measurement of restraint: An analysis of conceptual and psychometric issues. Journal of Abnormal Phychology, 97, 19-28.
 Herman, C. P., & Mack, D. (1975). Restrained and unrestrained eating. Journal of Personality, 4, 647-660.
 Jansen, A., Klaver, J., Merckelbach, H., & van den Hout, M. (1989). Restrained eaters are rapidly habituating sensation seekers. Behavior Research and Therapy, 3, 247-252.
 Jansen, A., & van den Hout, M. (1991). On being led into temptation: “Counterregulation” of dieters after smelling a “Preload”. Addictive Behaviors, 5, 247-253.
 Jansen, A., Oosterlaan, J., Merckelbach, H., & van den Hout, M. (1988). Nonregulation of food intake inrestrained, emotional and external eaters. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 10, 345-354.
 Knight, L. J., & Boland, F. J. (1989). Restrained eating: An experimental disentanglement of the disinhibiting variables of perceived calories and food type. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 412-420.
 Kroese, F. M., Adriaanse, M. A., Evers, C., & De Ridder, D. T. (2011). “Instant success”: Turning temptations into cues for goal-directed behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1389-1397.
 Laessle, R. G., Tuschl, R. J., Kotthaus, B. C., & Pirke, K. M. (1989). A comparison of the validity of three scales for the assessment of dietary restraint. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, Article ID: 504507.
 Lowe, M. R. (1993). The effects of dieting on eating behavior: A three-factor model. Psychological Bulletin, 1, 100-121.
 Lowe, M. R. (1995). Restrained eating and dieting: Replication of their divergent effects on eating regulation. Appetite, 25, 115-118.
 Lowe, M. R., & Maycock, B. (1988). Restraint, disinhibition, hunger and negative affect eating. Addictive Behaviors, 4, 369- 377
 Mann, T., Tomiyama, A. J., Westling, E., Lew, A. M., Samuels, B., & Chatman, J. (2007). Medicare’s search for effective obesity treatments. Diets are not the answer. American Psychologist, 62, 220-233.
 Mills, J. S., & Palandra, A. (2008). Perceived caloric content of a preload and disinhibition among restrained eaters. Appetite, 2-3, 240-245.
 Myhre, R., Kratz, M., Goldberg, J., Polivye, J., Melhornf, S., Buchwaldb, D., et al. (2014). A twin study of differences in the response of plasma ghrelin to a milkshake preload in restrained eaters. Physiology & Behavior, 129, 50-56.
 Ouwens, M. A., van Strien, T., & van der Staak, C. P. F. (2003). Tendency toward overeating and restraint as predictors of food consumption. Appetite, 3, 291-298.
 Papies, E. K., & Hamstra, P. (2010). Goal priming and eating behavior: Enhancing self-regulation by environmental cues. Health Psychology, 29, 384-388.
 Polivy, J., & Herman, C. P. (1989). Dietary restraint and binge eating: Response to Charnock. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28, 341-343.
 Ruderman, A. J. (1985). Dysphoric mood and overeating: A test of restraint theory’s disinhibition hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1, 78-85.
 Ruderman, A. J., & Christensen, H. (1983). Restraint theory and its applicability to overweight individuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2, 210-215.
 Schur, E. A., Kleinhans, N. M., Goldberg, J., Buchwald, D. S., Polivy, J., Del Parigi, A., & Maravilla, K. R. (2012). Acquired differences in brain responses among monozygotic twins discordant for restrained eating. Physiology & Behavior, 105, 560-567.
 Sin, N. L. Y., & Vartanian, L. R. (2012). Is counter-regulation among restrained eaters a result of motivated overeating? Appetite, 59, 488-493.
 Shah, M. B., Fishman, G. A., Alexander, K. R., & Viana, M. (1995). Stereoacuity testing in patients with retinal and optic nerve disorders. Documenta Ophthalmologics Advances in Ophthalmology, 3, 265-271.
 Spencer, J. A., & Fremouw, W. J. (1979). Binge eating as a function of restraint and weight classification. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 262-267.
 Stice, E., Sysko, R., Roberto, C. A., & Allison, S. (2010). Are dietary restraint scales valid measures of dietary restriction? Additional objective behavioral and biological data suggest not. Appetite, 2, 331-339.
 Stroebe, W., Mensink, W., Aarts, H., Schuta, H., & Kruglanskib, A. W. (2008). Why dieters fail: Testing the goal conflict model of eating. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 26-36.
 Stunkard, A. J., & Messick, S. (1985). The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29, 71-83.
 Timko, C. A., Adrienne, J., & Amy, C. (2012). The effect of a preload experiment on subsequent food consumption caloric and macronutrient intake in the days following a pre-load manipulation. Appetite, 58, 747-753.
 Tomiyama, A. J., Moskovich, A., Haltom, K. B., Ju, T., & Mann, T. (2009). Consumption after a diet violation: Disinhibition or compensation? Psychological Science, 10, 1275-1281.
 van Koningsbruggen, G. M., Stroeb, W., Papies, E. K., & Aarts, H. (2011). Implementation intentions as goal primes: Boosting self-control in tempting environments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 551-557.
 Van Strien, T., Breteler, M. H. M., & Ouwens, M. A. (2002). Restraint scale, its sub-scales concern for dieting and weight fluctuation. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 791-802.
 Van Strien, T., Cleven, A., & Schippers, G. (2000). Restraint, tendency toward overeating and ice cream consumption. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 3, 333-338.
 Wardle, J., & Beales, S. (1987). Restraint and food intake: An experimental study of eating pattern in the laboratory and in normal life. Behavior Research and Therapy, 25, 179-185.
 Woody, E. Z., Costanzo, P. R., Liefer, H., & Conger, J. (1981). The effects of taste and caloric perceptions on the eating behavior of restrained and unrestrained subjects. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5, 381-390.