不同趋近动机强度积极情绪对注意瞬脱的影响
The Effect of Low versus High Approach-Motivated Positive Affect on Attentional Blink

作者: 王 璐 , 陈 旭 , 马建苓 :西南大学心理学部,重庆;

关键词: 注意瞬脱积极情绪趋近动机搞笑渴望Attentional Blink Positive Affect Approach Motivation Amusement Desire

摘要:
注意瞬脱反映了注意资源在时间进程上的有限性。本研究首次探究了不同趋近动机积极情绪对注意瞬脱的影响。实验采用食物和幽默的视频分别诱发高趋近动机积极情绪——渴望和低趋近动机积极情绪——搞笑,以注意瞬脱经典范式为实验任务,以T1正确时T2的正确率为注意瞬脱量指标,结果发现:高低趋近动机积极情绪均降低了注意瞬脱量,且低趋近动机积极情绪较高趋近积极情绪的扩展效应更大(边缘显著),说明积极情绪能够扩展个体的时间注意广度。进一步分析发现,低趋近积极情绪提高了T2在lag4和lag5位置上的正确率,高趋近动机积极情绪提高了T2在lag1和lag2位置上的正确率,暗示了高低趋近动机积极情绪对注意瞬脱的影响可能存在不同的内在机制。文末总结了本研究的不足之处及今后的研究方向。

Abstract: Attentional blink reflects the limitation of attention resource over time. This is the first study to explore the effect of low versus high approach-motivated positive affect on attentional blink. We used food and humor videos to induce high approach-motivated positive affect (desire) and low approach-motivated positive affect (amusement) separately. Subjects were required to complete classic attentional blink tasks. The performance of attentional blink was indicated by the accuracy of T2 when T1 was correct. Results showed both low and high approach-motivated positive affect improved the performance attetional blink, and this effect was bigger in low approach-motivated positive affect than high. Further analysis revealed that low approach-motivated positive affect improved the accuracy of T2 when T1 was correct on lag4 and lag5, however, high approach-mo- tivated positive affect improved the accuracy of T2 when T1 was correct on lag1 and lag2, which may indicate different mechanisms of effect of low versus high approach-motivation on attentional blink. In the end, we summarized the deficiencies of this research and proposed future directions.

文章引用: 王 璐 , 陈 旭 , 马建苓 (2014) 不同趋近动机强度积极情绪对注意瞬脱的影响。 心理学进展, 4, 873-880. doi: 10.12677/AP.2014.47113

参考文献

[1] 陈武英, 卢家楣, 刘连启, 周炎根(2014). 情绪诱发的视盲: 一种独特的功能性视盲. 心理科学进展, 3期, 422-430.

[2] 贾磊, 李肖, 孙晓, 张庆林, 李海江, 蒋军(2012). 情绪图片的效价与唤醒度在注意瞬脱对抗效应中的作用: 来自ERP的证据. 心理发展与教育, 4期, 376-383.

[3] 刘亚(2012). 不同动机趋近积极情绪对认知控制的影响. 西安: 陕西师范大学.

[4] 王孟成, 戴晓阳, 姚树桥(2011). 中国大五人格问卷的初步编制III: 简式版的制定及信效度检验. 中国临床心理学杂志, 4期, 454-457.

[5] 张明, 王凌云(2009). 注意瞬脱的瓶颈理论. 心理科学进展, 1期, 7-16.

[6] 邹吉林, 张小聪, 张环, 于靓, 周仁来(2011). 超越效价和唤醒——情绪的动机维度模型述评. 心理科学进展, 9期, 1339-1346.

[7] Briggs, K. E., & Martin, F. H. (2009). Affective picture processing and motivational relevance: Arousal and valence effects on ERPs in an oddball task. International Journal of Psychophysiology: Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, 72, 299-306.

[8] Ekman, P., Freisen, W. V., & Ancoli, S. (1980). Facial signs of emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1125-1134.

[9] Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. The American Psychologist, 56, 218-226.

[10] Gable, P., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2010). The motivational dimensional model of affect: Implications for breadth of attention, memory, and cognitive categorisation. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 322-337.

[11] Gable, P. A., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2008). Approach-motivated positive affect reduces breadth of attention. Psychological Science, 19, 476-482.

[12] Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (2005). International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual: NIMH. Center for the Study of Emotion & Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville.

[13] MacLean, M. H., & Arnell, K. M. (2010). Personality predicts temporal attention costs in the attentional blink paradigm. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 556-562.

[14] MacLean, M. H., Arnell, K. M., & Busseri, M. A. (2010). Dispositional affect predicts temporal attention costs in the attentional blink paradigm. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 1431-1438.

[15] Most, S. B., Chun, M. M., Johnson, M. R., & Kiehl, K. A. (2006). Attentional modulation of the amygdala varies with personality. Neuroimage, 31, 934-944.

[16] Most, S. B., Chun, M. M., Widders, D. M., & Zald, D. H. (2005). Attentional rubbernecking: Cognitive control and personality in emotion-induced blindness. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 654-661.

[17] Olivers, C. N., & Meeter, M. (2008). A boost and bounce theory of temporal attention. Psychological Review, 115, 836-863.

[18] Olivers, C. N., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2005). The beneficial effect of concurrent task-irrelevant mental activity on temporal attention. Psychological Science, 16, 265-269.

[19] Olivers, C. N., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2006). The beneficial effects of additional task load, positive affect, and instruction on the attentional blink. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32, 364-379.

[20] Qian, W., Meng, Q., Chen, L., & Zhou, K. (2012). Emotional modulation of the attentional blink is awareness-dependent. PLoS ONE, 7, e46394.

[21] Raymond, J. E., Shapiro, K. L., & Arnell, K. M. (1992). Temporary suppression of visual processing in an RSVP task: An attentional blink? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 849-860.

[22] Vermeulen, N., Godefroid, J., & Mermillod, M. (2009). Emotional modulation of attention: Fear increases but disgust reduces the attentional blink. PLoS ONE, 4, e7924.

[23] Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063-1070.

分享
Top