The Evolution of English Genitives—Two Models of Deflexion
作者: 鲁方昕 ：南昌大学外国语学院，南昌;
Abstract: The evolution of English genitive case has been influenced by two types of deflexion in the long course of language change. This varies from the mechanism possessed by most Indo-European languages. Starting with studying the grammatical status of the genitive marker –’s, this article argues that –’s is now an atypical clitic. After that, the development of genitive constructions is de-scribed from both the morphological and the syntactic perspectives and within such a description, several important phenomena are investigated. In consideration of the degrammaticalization of Saxon genitive and the emergence of Roman genitive, the unique developmental pattern of English genitives is revealed.
文章引用: 鲁方昕 (2014) 英语属格的演变——两种去屈折化。 现代语言学， 2， 210-216. doi: 10.12677/ML.2014.24025
 Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. (1985) A comprehensive grammar of the English language. Longman, London & New York.
 Rosenbach, A. (2008) Animacy and grammatical variation—Findings from English genitive variation. Lingua, 118, 151-171.
 Jespersen, O. (1894) Progress in language: With special reference to English. Swan Sonnenschein and Co., London.
 Allen, C. (2003) Deflexion and the development of the genitive in English. English Language and Linguistics, 1, 1-28.
 金积令 (1991) 英语属格变化的历史原因. 外语教学与研究, 2, 30-34.
 Janda, R. (1980) On the decline of declensional systems: The overall loss of OE nominal case inflections and the ME reanalysis of -es as his. In: Traugott, E., Labrum, R. and Shepherd, S., Eds., Papers from the 4th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, John Benjamins, Amsterdam & Philadelphia, 243-252.
 Janda, R. (1981) A case of liberation from morphology into syntax: The fate of the English genitive-marker -(e)s. In: Johns, B. and Strong, D., Eds., Syntactic Change, Department of Linguistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 60-114.
 Norde, M. (2009) Degrammaticalization. Oxford University Press, New York.
 Blake, B. (2001) Case. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 Zwicky, A. (1988) Direct reference to heads. Folia Linguistica, 22, 397-404.
 Picard, M. (1990) More on the English genitive plural. Folia Linguistica, 24, 373-376.
 Leech, G. (1995) 英语语法的过去、现在与未来. 外语教学与研究, 2, 1-6.
 Norde, M. (2001) Deflexion as a counterdirectional factor in grammatical change. Language Sciences, 23, 231-264.
 Payne, T. (2010) Describing morphosyntax: A guide for field linguistics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 Zwicky, A. and Pullum, G. (1983) Cliticization vs inflection: English n’t. Language, 59, 502-513.
 Sklar, E. (1976) The possessive apostrophe: The development and decline of a crooked mark. College English, 38, 175-183.
 Halpern, A. (1995) On the placement and morphology of clitics. CSLI Publications, Stanford.
 Zwicky, A. (1987) Suppressing the Zs. Journal of Linguistics, 23, 133-148.
 Carstairs, A. (1987) Diachronic evidence and the affix-clitic distinction. In: Ramat, A., Carruba, O. and Bernini, G., Eds., The 7th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, John Benjamins, Amsterdam & Philadelphia, 151-162.
 Lightfoot, D. (1999) The development of language: Acquisition, change and evolution. Blackwell, Oxford & Malden.
 Thomas, R. (1931) Syntactic process involved in the development of the adnominal periphrastic genitive in the English language. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
 Curme, G. (1931) Syntax. D. C. Heath, Boston.
 Hook, D. (1999) The apostrophe: Use and misuse. English Today: The International Review of the English Language, 15, 42-49.
 Allen, C. (1997) The origins of the “group genitive” in English. Transactions of the Philological Society, 95, 111-131.
 Traugott, E. (2001) Legitimate counterexamples to unidirectionality.
 Svartvik, J. and Leech, G. (2006) English: One tongue, many voices. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
 Hopper, P. and Traugott, E. (2003) Grammaticalization. 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 Lehmann, C. (1995/1982) Thoughts on grammaticalization. Lincom Europa, Munich & Newcastle.
 Koike, T. (2006) The history of the genitive case from the Old English period onwards. English Language and Linguistics, 10, 49-75.
 Croft, W. (1990) Typology and universals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 Aikire, T. and Rosen, C. (2010) Romance languages: A historical introduction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 Rosenbach, A. (2002) Genitive variation in English: Conceptual factors in synchronic and diachronic studies. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin & New York.