Effects of Implicit Power Motive on Attentional Bias for Facial Expressions
Abstract: The present study investigated the influence of implicit power motive on attentional bias for facial expressions by using the dot probe and emotional Stroop task. The results showed that: 1) there was no evidence to suggest differential processing of angry and happy faces by high- and low- power motive individuals on the dot probe task; power-motivated participants, however, showed an attentional bias for surprised faces; 2) in the emotional Stroop task, in contrast to the low-pow- er subjects, the high-power subjects showed a processing bias for angry and surprised faces, but not for happy faces; 3) the indexes of attentional bias in the dot probe and emotional Stroop task showed a negative relationship for angry faces, and no relationship for happy and surprised faces. Taken together, the present study validated that facial expressions of emotion are salient incentive cues for implicit power motive, and they interact with implicit power motive to shape attentional orienting.
文章引用: 王建峰 , 吴 燕 (2014) 内隐权力动机对情绪面孔注意偏向的影响。 心理学进展， 4， 766-776. doi: 10.12677/AP.2014.46101
 van Honk, J., Tuiten, A., Verbaten, R., van den Hout, M., Koppeschaar, H., Thijssen, J., et al. (1999). Correlations among salivary testosterone, mood, and selective attention to threat in humans. Hormones and Behavior, 36, 17-24.
 Wang, J., Liu, L., & Yan, J. (2014). Implicit power motive effects on the ERP processing of emotional intensity in anger faces. Journal of Research in Personality, 50, 90-97.
 Wang, J., Liu, L., & Zheng, Y. (2011). Effects of implicit power motive on the processing of anger faces: An event-related potential study. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 441-447.
 Williams, J. M. G., Watts, F. N., MacLeod, C., & Mathews, A. (1997). Cognitive psychology and the emotional disorders (2nd ed.). Chichester: Wiley.
 Winter, D. G. (1973). The power motive. New York: Free Press.
 Winter, D. G. (1994). Manual for scoring motive imagery in running text (4th ed.). Ann Arbor, MI: Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Unpublished Manuscript.
 Wirth, M. M., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2007). Basal testosterone moderates responses to anger faces in humans. Physiology and Behavior, 90, 496-505.
 Woike, B. A., & Bender, M. (2009). Implicit motives as a way to understand cognitive processes. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3, 702-710.
 王其峰, 许燕(2010). 图片–故事练习的测量学特征. 心理科学, 3期, 673-675.
 王妍, 罗跃嘉(2005). 大学生面孔表情材料的标准化及其评定. 中国临床心理学杂志, 4期, 396-398.
 Adolphs, R. (2002). Recognizing emotion from facial expressions: Pschological and neurological mechanisms. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 1, 21-61.
 Bemat, E., Bunce, S., & Shevrin, H. (2001). Event related brain potentials differentiate positive and negative mood adjectives during both supraliminal and subliminal visual processing. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 42, 11-34.
 Hermans, E. J., Ramsey, N., Tuiten, A., & van Honk, J. (2004). The amygdala and anger: Responses to angry facial expressions after administration of a single dose of testosterone. Human Brain Mapping, 23, S188.
 Hofer, J., Busch, H., Bond, M. H., Li, M., & Law, R. (2010). Effects of motive-goal congruence on well-being in the power domain: Considering goals and values in a German and two Chinese samples. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 610-620.
 Josephs, R. A., Sellers, J. G., Newman, M. L., & Mehta, P. H. (2006). The mismatch effect: When testos-terone and status are at odds. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 999-1013.
 Keltner, D., Young, R. C., Heerey, E. A., Oemig, C., & Monarch, N. D. (1998). Teasing in hierarchical and intimate relations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1231-1247.
 Knutson, B. (1996). Facial expressions of emotion influence interpersonal trait inferences. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 20, 165-182.
 McClelland, D. C., Koestner, R., & Weinberger, J. (1989). How do self-attributed and implicit motives differ? Psychological Review, 96, 690-702.
 Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., & Hallowell, N. (1994). Attentional bias to threat: Roles of trait anxiety, stressful events, and awareness. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A, 47, 841-864.
 Putman, P., Hermans, E., & van Honk, J. (2004). Emotional Stroop performance for masked angry faces: It’s BAS, not BIS. Emotion, 4, 305-311.
 Schultheiss, O. C., & Hale, J. A. (2007). Implicit motives modulate attentional orienting to perceived facial expressions of emotion. Motivation and Emotion, 31, 13-24.
 Schultheiss, O. C., Pang, J. S., Torges, C. M., Wirth, M. M., & Treynor, W. (2005). Perceived facial expressions of emotion as motivational incentives: Evidence from a differential implicit learning paradigm. Emotion, 5, 41-54.
 Schultheiss, O. C., Wirth, M. M., Waugh, C. E., Stanton, S. J., Meier, E., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. (2008). Exploring the motivational brain: Effects of implicit power motivation on brain activation in response to facial expressions of emotion. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 3, 333-343.
 Stanton, S. J., Hall, J. L., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2010). Properties of motive-specific incentives. In O. C. Schultheiss & J. C. Brunstein, (Eds.), Implicit motives (pp. 245-278). New York: Oxford University Press.
 Yuan, J. J., He, Y. Y., Lei, Y., Yang, J. M., & Li, H. (2009). Event-related potential correlates of the extraverts’ sensitivity to valence changes in positive stimuli. NeuroReport, 20, 1071-1076.
 van Honk, J., Tuiten, A., Hermans, E., Putman, P., Koppeschaar, H., Thijssen, J., et al. (2001). A single administration of testosterone induces cardiac accelerative responses to angry faces in healthy young women. Behavioral Neuroscience, 106, 274-285.