植物开花控制基因FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)功能多样性的研究进展
Progress on the Multifaceted Roles of Flowering Control Gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)
Abstract: The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein, a mobile signal recognized as a major component of florigen, has a central position in mediating the floral transition. Recent research showed that FT gene not only promoted flowering, but in some plants FT also showed the function of inhibition of plant flowering. At the same time the function of FT gene has also been identified as a major regulatory factor in a wide range of developmental processes, such as fruit set, vegetative growth, stomatal control, tuberization, and branches elongation. This article reviewed the latest pleiotropic functions of FT and its orthologs in plant development, providing a theoretical basis for further study about the function of FT-like gene sub-family.
文章引用: 郭丹丽 , 黄先忠 (2014) 植物开花控制基因FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)功能多样性的研究进展。 植物学研究， 3， 218-226. doi: 10.12677/BR.2014.36028
 李宪利, 袁志友 (2002) 高等植物成花分子机理研究现状及展望. 西北植物学报, 22, 173-183.
 Fornara, F., de Montaigu, A. and Coupland, G. (2010) SnapShot: Control of flowering in Arabidopsis. Cell, 141, 550- 550.
 Mouradov, A., Cremer, F. and Coupland, G. (2002) Control of flowering time: interacting pathways as a basis for diversity. The Plant Cell, 14, S111-S130.
 Kobayashi, Y., Kaya, H., Goto, K., et al. (1999) A pair of related genes with antagonistic roles in mediating flowering signals. Science, 286, 1960-1962.
 Kardailsky, I., Shukla, V.K., Ahn, J.H., et al. (1999) Activation tagging of the floral inducer FT. Science, 286, 1962- 1965.
 Tamaki, S., Matsuo, S., Wong, H.L., et al. (2007) Hd3a protein is a mobile flowering signal in rice. Science, 316, 1033- 1036.
 Fukuda, M., Matsuo, S., Kikuchi, K., et al. (2007) Isolation and functional characterization of the FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog, the LsFT gene, in lettuce. Journal of Plant Physiology, 168, 1602-1607.
 东锐, 院海英, 顾超, 等 (2011) 棉花GhFTL1基因的克隆及初步功能分析. 棉花学报, 23, 515-521.
 McGarry, R.C. and Ayre, B.G. (2012) Geminivirus-mediated delivery of florigen promotes determinate growth in aerial organs and uncouples flowering from photoperiod in cotton. PLoS One, 7.
 Song, G.Q., Walworth, A., Zhao, D., et al. (2013) The Vaccinium corymbosum FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT): A flowering activator reverses photoperiodic and chilling requirements in blueberry. Plant Cell Reports, 32, 1759-1769.
 Li, C., Luo, L., Fu, Q., et al. (2014) Isolation and functional characterization of JcFT, a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologous gene from the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas. BMC Plant Biology, 14, 125.
 Endo, T., Shimada, T., Fujii, H., et al. (2005) Ectopic expression of an FT homolog from citrus confers an early flowering phenotype on trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.). Transgenic Research, 14, 703-712.
 Lgasaki, T., Watanabe, Y., Nishiguchi, M., et al. (2008) The FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 family in Lambardy poplar. Plant & Cell Physiology, 49, 291-300.
 Hou, C.J. and Yang, C.H. (2009) Functional analysis of FT and TFL1 orthologs from Orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey) that regulate the vegetative to reproductive transition. Plant & Cell Physiology, 50, 1544-1557.
 Oda, A., Narumi, T., Li, T., et al. (2012) CsFTL3, a chrysanthemum FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, is a key regulator of photoperiodic flowering in chrysanthemums. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63, 1461-1477.
 Wigge, P.A. (2011) FT, a mobile developmental signal in plants. Current Biology, 21, R374-R378.
 Nitcher, R., Distelfeld, A., Tan, C., et al. (2013) Increased copy number at the HvFT1 locus is associated with accelerated flowering time in barley. Molecular Genetics and Genomics, 288, 261-275.
 Yamagishi, N. and Yoshikawa, N. (2011) Expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T from Arabidopsis thaliana induces precocious flowering in soybean irrespective of maturity group and stem growth habit. Planta, 233, 561-568.
 Kobayashi, Y. and Weigel, D. (2007) Move on up, it’s time for change-mobile signals controlling photoperiod-depen- dent flowering. Genes & Development, 21, 2371-2384.
 Yang, H., Howard, M. and Dean, C. (2014) Antagonistic roles for H3K36me3 and H3K27me3 in the cold-induced epigenetic switch at Arabidopsis FLC. Current Biology, 24, 1793-1797.
 Yun, H., Hyun, Y., Kang, M.J., et al. (2011) Identification of regulators required for the reactivation of FLOWERING LOCUS C during Arabidopsis reproduction. Planta, 234, 1237-1250.
 Bastow, R., Mylne, J.S., Lister, C., et al. (2004) Vernalization requires epigenetic silencing of FLC by histone methylation. Nature, 427, 164-167.
 Ding, L., Kim, S.Y. and Michaels, S.D. (2013) FLOWERING LOCUS C EXPRESSOR family proteins regulate FLOWERING LOCUS C expression in both winter-annual and rapid-cycling Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 163, 243- 252.
 Searle, I., He, Y., Turck, F., et al. (2006) The transcription factor FLC confers a flowering response to vernalization by repressing meristem competence and systemic signaling in Arabidopsis. Genes & Development, 20, 898-912.
 Levy, Y.Y. and Dean, C. (1998) Control of flowering time. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 1, 49-54.
 Mutasa-Göttgens, E. and Hedden, P. (2009) Gibberellin as a factor in floral regulatory networks. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60, 1979-1989.
 Li, W.F., Zhang, S.G., Han, S.Y., et al. (2013) Regulation of LaMYB33 by miR159 during maintenance of embryogenic potential and somatic embryo maturation in Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 113, 131-136.
 Yu, S., Galvão, V.C., Zhang, Y.C., et al. (2012) Gibberellin regulates the Arabidopsis floral transition through miR156-targeted SQUAMOSA promoter binding-like transcription factors. The Plant Cell, 24, 3320-3332.
 Huijser, P. and Schmid, M. (2011). The control of developmental phase transitions in plants. Devel-opment, 138, 4117- 4129.
 Wang, J.W., Czech, B. and Weigel, D. (2009) miR156-Regulated SPL Transcription Factors Define an Endogenous Flowering Pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cell, 138, 738-749.
 Kim, J.J., Lee, J.H., Kim, W., et al. (2012) The microRNA156-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN- LIKE3 module regulates ambient temperature responsive flowering via FLOWERING LOCUS T in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 159, 461-478.
 Mathieu, J., Yant, L.J., Mürdter, F., et al. (2009) Repression of flowering by the miR172 target SMZ. PLoS Biology, 7.
 Adrian, J., Farrona, S., Reimer, J.J., et al. (2010) Cis-Regulatory elements and chromatin state coordinately control temporal and spatial expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell, 22, 1425-1440.
 Wu, L., Liu, D., Wu, J., et al. (2013) Regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T by a microRNA in Bra-chypodium distachyon. The Plant Cell, 25, 4363-4377.
 Harig, L., Beinecke, F.A., Qltmanns, J., et al. (2012) Pro-teins from the FLOWERING LOCUS T-like subclade of the PEBP family act antagonistically to regulate floral initiation in tobacco. The Plant Journal, 72, 908-921.
 Pin, P.A., Benlloch, R., Bonnet, D., et al. (2010) An antagonistic pair of FT homologs mediates the control of flowering time in sugar beet. Science, 330, 1397-1400.
 Winterhagen, P., Tiyayon, P., Samach, A., et al. (2013) Isolation and characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T subforms and APETALA1 of the subtropical fruit tree Dimocarpus longan. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 71, 184- 190.
 Coelho, C.P., Minow, M.A., Chalfun-Júnior, A., et al. (2014) Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flo-wering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis. Fronties in Plant Science, 5, 221.
 Blackman, B.K., Strasburg, J.L., Raduski, A.R., et al. (2010) The role of recently derived FT paralogs in sunflower domestication. Current Biology, 20, 629-635.
 Zhai, H., Lü, S., Liang, S., et al. (2014) GmFT4, a homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T, is positively regulated by E1 and functions as a flowering repressor in soybean. PLoS One, 9.
 Sun, H., Jia, Z., Cao, D., et al. (2011) GmFT2a, a soybean homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T, is involved in flowering transition and maintenance. PLoS One, 6.
 Lifschitz, E., Eviatar, T., Rozman, A., et al. (2006) The tomato FT ortholog triggers systemic signals that regulate growth and flowering and substitute for diverse environmental stimuli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 6398-6403.
 Lee, R., Baldwin, S., Kenel, F., et al. (2013) FLOWERING LOCUS T genes control onion bulb formation and flowering. Nature Communication, 4, 2884.
 Navarro, C., Abelenda, J.A., Cruz-Oró, E., et al. (2011) Control of flowering and storage organ formation in potato by FLOWERING LOCUS T. Nature, 478, 119-122.
 Jiang, K., Liberatore, K.L., Park, S.J., et al. (2013) Tomato yield heterosis is triggered by a dosage sensitivity of the florigen pathway that fine-tunes shoot architecture. PLoS Genetics, 9.
 Krieger, U., Lippman, Z.B. and Zamir, D. (2010) The flowering gene SINGLE FLOWERING TRUSS dries heterosis for yield in tomato. Nature Genetics, 42, 459-463.
 Liu, L., Liu, C., Hou, X., et al. (2012) FTIP1 is an essential regulator required for florigen transport. PLoS Biology, 10.
 Wigge, P.A., Kim, M.C., Jaeger, K.E., et al. (2005) Integration of spatial and temporal information during floral induction in Arabidopsis. Science, 309, 1056-1059.
 Corbesier, L., Vincent, C., Jang, S., et al. (2007) FT protein movement contributes to long-distance signaling in floral induction of Arabidopsis. Science, 316, 1030-1033.
 Mimida, N., Kidou, S., Iwanami, H., et al. (2011) Apple FLOWERING LOCUS T proteins interact with transcription factors implicated in cell growth and organ development. Tree Physiology, 31, 555-566.
 Hiraoka, K., Yamaguchi, A., Abe, M., et al. (2013) The florigen genes FT and TSF modulate lateral shoot outgrowth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant & Cell Physiology, 54, 352-368.
 Kobayashi, K., Yasuno, N., Sato, Y., et al. (2012) Inflorescence meristem identity in rice is specified by overlapping functions of three AP1/FUL-like MADS box genes and PAP2, a SEPALLATA MADS box gene. The Plant Cell, 24, 1848-1859.
 Niwa, M., Endo, M. and Araki, T. (2013) Florigen is involved in axillary bud development at multiple stages in Arabidopsis. Plant Signaling & Behavior, 8, e27167.
 Smith, H.M., Ung, N., Lai, S., et al. (2011) Specification of reproductive meristems requires the combined function of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS and floral integrators FLOWERING LOCUS T and FD during Arabidopsis inflorescence development. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62, 583-593.
 Kinoshita, T., Doi, M., Suetsugu, N., et al. (2001) Phot1 and phot2 mediate blue light regulation of stomatal opening. Nature, 414, 656-660.
 Kinoshita, T. and Shimazaki, K. (1999) Blue light activates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phosphorylation of the C-terminus in stomatal guard cells. The EMBO Journal, 18, 5548-5558.
 Kinoshita, T., Ono, N., Hayashi, Y., et al. (2011) Flowering Locus T regulates stomatal opening. Current Biology, 21, 1232-1238.
 Kim, D.H. and Sung, S. (2014) Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying vernalization. The Arabidopsis Book, 12, e0171.
 Srinivasan, C., Dardick, C., Callahan, A., et al. (2012) Plum (Prunus domestica) trees transformed with poplar FT1 result in altered architecture, dormancy requirement, and continuous flowering. PLoS One, 7.