金钱启动研究的分类及进展
The Classification and Progress of Money Priming Research

作者: 黄 博 , 范玲霞 , 杨 东 :西南大学心理学部,重庆; 马丽娜 :华中师范大学教育学院,武汉;

关键词: 意识无意识金钱启动Conscious Unconscious Money Priming

摘要:
根据三种意识水平:意识、前意识、潜意识,作者提出一种金钱启动研究分类的新视角。在此基础上,依次介绍各种研究类型下的相关理论,并重点介绍无意识层面的金钱启动研究,包括无意识金钱启动的最新研究结果,无意识金钱启动研究范式,以及无意识金钱启动的认知机制及理论模型,在文章的最后,作者指出今后的研究应该不断深入探索无意识、有意识金钱启动的机制及其差异,而且,对于不同意识水平的金钱启动要进一步明确边界。According to three levels of consciousness: conscious, preconscious, and subliminal, the article proposes a new perspective about the classification of money priming. Based on this perspective, this article introduces relevant theories under the new classification, and we would be focusing on the unconscious money priming research specially, which contains the latest research results, research paradigm, as well as processing model of unconscious money priming. In the end, the authors proposed future directions of exploring the difference of processing mechanism of conscious and unconscious money priming, and explicit boundary should be given between the monetary processing on different levels of consciousness.

文章引用: 黄 博 , 马丽娜 , 范玲霞 , 杨 东 (2014) 金钱启动研究的分类及进展。 心理学进展, 4, 579-584. doi: 10.12677/AP.2014.44078

参考文献

[1] 谢天, 周静, 俞国良(2012). 金钱启动研究的理论与方法. 心理科学进展, 6期, 918-925.

[2] 徐希铮,张景焕,刘桂荣,李鹰(2012). 奖励对创造力的影响及机制. 心理科学进展, 9期, 1419-1425.

[3] Aston-Jones, G., & Cohen, J. D. (2005). An integrative theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function: Adaptive gain and optimal performance. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 403-450.

[4] Bargh, J. A. & Morsella, E. (2008). The unconscious mind. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 73-79.

[5] Bargh, J. A., & Schwader, K. L. (2012). Automaticity in social-cognitive processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 593- 605.

[6] Bijleveld, E., Custers, A., & Aarts, H. (2012a). Adaptive reward pursuit: How effort requirements affect unconscious reward responses and conscious reward decisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology-General, 141, 728-742.

[7] Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2009). The unconscious eye-opener: Pupil size reveals strategic recruitment of resources upon presentation of subliminal reward cues. Psychological Science, 20, 1313-1315.

[8] Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2010). Unconscious reward cues increase invested effort, but do not change speed-accuracy tradeoffs. Cognition, 115, 330-335.

[9] Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2011a). Once the money is in sight: Distinctive effects of conscious and unconscious rewards on task performance. Journal of Experi-mental Social Psychology, 47, 865-869.

[10] Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2011b). When favourites fail: Tour-nament trophies as reward cues in tennis finals. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29, 1463-1470.

[11] Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2012b). Human reward pursuit: From rudimentary to higher-level functions. Current Directions in Psycho-logical Science, 21, 273-273.

[12] Bjork, J. M., & Hommer, D. W. (2007). Anticipating instrumentally obtained and passively-received rewards: A factorial fMRI investigation. Behavioural Brain Research, 177, 165-170.

[13] Braem, S., Verguts, T., Roggeman, C., & Notebaert, W. (2012). Reward modulates adaptations to conflict. Cognition, 125, 324-332.

[14] Capa, R. L., Bouquet, C. A., Dreher, J. C., & Dufour, A. (2012). Long-lasting effects of perfor-mance-contingent unconscious and conscious reward incentives during cued task-switching. Cortex, 49, 1943-1954.

[15] Capa, R. L., Bustin, G. M., Cleeremans, A., & Hansenne, M. (2011). Conscious and unconscious reward cues can affect a critical com-ponent of executive control: (Un)conscious updating? Experimental Psychology, 58, 370-375.

[16] Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2010). The unconscious will: How the pursuit of goals operates outside of con-scious awareness. Science, 329, 47-50.

[17] Dehaene, S., Changeux, J. P., Naccache, L., Sackur, J., & Sergent, C. (2006). Conscious, preconscious, and subliminal pro- cessing: A testable taxonomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 204-211.

[18] Dijksterhuis, A., & Aarts, H. (2010). Goals, attention, and (un)consciousness. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 467-490.

[19] Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.

[20] Eisenberger, R., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Incremental effects of reward on creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 728-741.

[21] Kiss, M., Driver, J., & Eimer, M. (2009). Reward priority of visual target singletons modulates event-related potential signatures of attentional selection. Psychological Science, 20, 245-251.

[22] Krebs, R. M., Boehler, C. N., Appelbaum, L. G., & Woldorff, M. G. (2013). Reward associations reduce behavioral interference by changing the temporal dynamics of conflict processing. PLoS ONE, 8, e53894.

[23] Lea, S. E. G., & Webley, P. (2006). Money as tool, money as drug: The biological psychology of a strong incentive. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 161-209.

[24] Liu, W., & Aaker, J. (2007). Do you look to the future or focus on today? The impact of life experience on intertemporal decisions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 102, 212-225.

[25] Merker, B. (2007). Consciousness without a cerebral cortex: A challenge for neuroscience and medicine. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30, 63-81.

[26] Pessiglione, M., Schmidt, L., Draganski, B., Kalisch, R., Lau, H., Dolan, R. J., & Frith, C. D. (2007). How the brain translates money into force: A neuroimaging study of subliminal motivation. Science, 316, 904-906.

[27] Richter, M. (2010). Pay attention to your manipulation checks! Reward impact on cardiac reactivity is moderated by task context. Biological Psychology, 84, 279-289.

[28] Treadway, M. T., Buckholtz, J. W., Schwartzman, A. N., Lambert, W. E., & Zald, D. H. (2009). Worth the “EEfRT”? The effort expenditure for rewards task as an objective measure of motivation and anhedonia. PLoS ONE, 4, e6598.

[29] van Steenbergen, H., Band, G. P. H., & Hommel, B. (2012). Reward valence modulates conflict-driven attentional adaptation: Electrophysiological evidence. Biological Psychology, 90, 234-241.

[30] Vohs, K. D., Mead, N. L., & Goode, M. R. (2006). The psychological consequences of money. Science, 314, 1154-1156.

[31] Wallis, J. D., & Kennerley, S. W. (2010). Heterogeneous reward signals in prefrontal cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 20, 191-198.

[32] Zedelius, C. M., Veling, H., & Aarts, H. (2011). Boosting or choking—How conscious and unconscious reward processing modulate the active maintenance of goal-relevant information. Consciousness and Cognition, 20, 355-362.

[33] Zhou, X. Y., Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). The symbolic power of money: Reminders of money alter social distress and physical pain. Psycholocical Science, 20, 700-706.

分享
Top