水循环改变的生态影响评价研究进展
Research Progress on Ecological Impact Assessment about Water Cycle Change

作者: 张秋霞 , 王 芳 :中国水利水电科学研究院,流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室,北京;

关键词: 生态影响评价流域水循环生态水文过程生态系统健康生态系统功能Ecological Impact Assessment Hydrological Cycling in Watershed Hydrological and Ecological Process Ecosystem Health Ecosystem Function

摘要:

淡水循环是流域尺度内坡面植被、河流、湖沼湿地以及河口近岸海域四大类生态系统的重要环境因子,改变水循环会不同程度地影响流域内各类生态系统。本文从生态系统过程、结构和功能三方面梳理了国内外有关水循环改变生态系统的影响评价工作;指出我国水资源开发力度大使流域水循环显著改变,以及未来发展对水资源与健康生态的双重需要,将会使围绕流域水循环的生态影响评价有更广泛的需求。目前存在的主要问题是生物本底信息缺乏、生态水文过程不清晰、生态恢复工程人为调控因素被忽略,需要基于生态站有限的信息建立分区生态基准,应加强各类生态系统生态水文过程的研究,开展生态系统的动态影响评价。

Abstract: Freshwater cycle is the major environmental factor for four ecosystems including slope vegetation, river, lake or wetland and estuary in watershed scale. Variation of hydrological cycle will affect each ecosystem to different extent. By analyzing ecosystem’s process, structure and function, the impact assessment research both at home and abroad for how hydrological cycle affect ecosystem was summarized in this article. The article also indicated that in China more and more extensive water resources’ development by the government has changed hydrological cycle obviously and future economic development needs both water resources and healthy ecosystem. They will make the study on ecological impacting assessment caused by hydrological cycle variation in watershed become more desired. The main problems were summarized as follow: a) There is a lack of original biological information; b) Processes between hydrology and ecology in aquatic ecosystem are not clear enough; c) Influences of artificial controlling for ecosystem restoration are ignored. The main suggested methods are to construct ecological basis in different area based on limited ecological monitoring station, enhance research on eco-hydrological process and take dynamic assessment for different ecosystems.

文章引用: 张秋霞 , 王 芳 (2014) 水循环改变的生态影响评价研究进展。 世界生态学, 3, 21-29. doi: 10.12677/IJE.2014.32004

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