一条整合途径:无意识加工与意识加工之间的关系
A Way of Integration: The Relationship between Conscious and Unconscious Processes

作者: 涂 燊 :西华师范大学教育学院心理学系,南充; 赵 光 :辽宁师范大学心理学院,大连;

关键词: 意识加工无意识加工完备集合整合途径Conscious Processes Unconscious Processes Complete Set Way of Integration

摘要:

在美国国家卫生研究院公布的9个大脑研究重点资助领域中,其一是把神经科学实验与理论、模型、统计学等进行整合,而意识加工与无意识加工之间的关系可能是其中一条候选整合途径。该关系可以从四个角度进行阐述:意识加工之间的影响;无意识加工对意识加工的影响;意识加工对无意识加工的影响;以及无意识加工之间的影响。本文在综合介绍上述四个方面研究的同时,着重对后面两个研究较少的方向进行论述。特别是首次提到无意识加工之间相互影响、相互作用的观点,并对其现实和理论意义作了较详细的阐述。这些意义包括创造性现象的重新解释、意识全局工作空间理论的修正、不同意识理论的整合、静息态研究的解释以及认知资源概念的重新理解。最后,我们认为无意识加工间的相互作用可能是意识加工与无意识加工之间相互影响的桥梁。从意识加工与无意识加工的角度来看,上述四种关系(特别是后三种)可能构成了大脑加工机制的完备集合,可以作为一个对研究数据及模型等进行整理与整合的思路。

Abstract: National Institute of Health (NIH) of US will mainly sponsor nine research areas about brain, one of which is to integrate theory, modeling, statistics, and computation with experimentation. In this review, we speculate that the relationship between conscious and unconscious processes might be a candidate way of integration. As to relationship between conscious and unconscious processes, there are four aspects: 1) the interactive influences within/among conscious processes, which mainly reflect the role of attention on consciousness; 2) the unconscious modulation on conscious processes, which is studied mostly in unconscious priming paradigm; 3) the conscious modulation on unconscious processes; 4) the interactive influence within/among unconscious processes, which is seldom investigated by now. Based on recent findings, we mainly focus on the last two points, especially the possibility of interactions between unconscious processes and its theory implications (reinterpretation of mechanism of creativity, modification of global neural workspace theory, integration of different consciousness theories, new interpretation of resting state, sleeping and cognitive resources). In addition, recent studies showed that top-down category selective attention (i.e. consciousness) modulated unconscious processes in a continuous manner because of continuous-changed degree of contour alternation. At last, we first posited that interactions within/among unconscious processes could serve as a bridge between conscious and unconscious modulations on each other. From the viewpoint of conscious/unconscious process, the last three points might form a complete set of cognitive mechanism in brain research and serve as a candidate way of integration.

文章引用: 涂 燊 , 赵 光 (2014) 一条整合途径:无意识加工与意识加工之间的关系 。 心理学进展, 4, 473-484. doi: 10.12677/AP.2014.43065

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