北极海冰的年代际转型及极端低温变化特征
Decadal Regime Shift of Arctic Sea Ice and Corresponding Changes of Extreme Low Temperature

作者: 黄 菲 , 狄 慧 , 周 晓 :中国海洋大学物理海洋实验室,青岛;中国海洋大学,山东省高校海洋–大气相互作用与气候重点实验室,青岛; 胡蓓蓓 :中国海洋大学物理海洋实验室,青岛;中国海洋大学,山东省高校海洋–大气相互作用与气候重点实验室,青岛;南海舰队海洋水文气象中心,湛江;

关键词: 中高纬度极端低温北大西洋涛动西伯利亚高压反相振荡Mid-High Latitudes Extreme Low Temperature The North Atlantic Oscillation Siberian High Out-of-Phase Oscillation

摘要: 利用1979~2012年北极海冰范围逐月的距平变化资料,发现北极海冰的减少趋势存在显著的年代际转型,1979~1996年期间北极海冰范围减小速率较慢,为−79.6 km2/month,而1997~2012年则加速融化,海冰面积减小速率(−213.0 km2/month)1979~1996年的2.7倍。随后探讨了北极海冰年代际转型前后北半球冬季中高纬度极端低温的变化特征及其相应的大气环流特征。研究发现前一时段的1979~1996年期间北半球中高纬度和东西半球极端低温频数均呈现跷跷板式的反位相分布特征,即欧亚大陆高纬度地区极端低温频数存在减少的趋势,西半球特别是格陵兰岛一带以及欧亚中纬度区域极端低温频数具有增加的趋势。这种变化与冬季北大西洋涛动有很大的相关。1997~2012年北极海冰加速融化时期,中高纬度极端低温主要表现为中纬度和极区之间的南北反相振荡特征,即中纬度欧亚大陆极端低温频数增加,北冰洋区与极端低温频数减少。这种变化主要与冬季西伯利亚高压通过影响中高纬欧亚大陆温度的变化进一步影响极端低温的变化有关。

Abstract: Based on anomaly change of monthly Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) from 1979 to 2012, it is found that the decreasing trend of Arctic SIE showed a remarkably decadal regime shift. The melting rate during 1979 to 1996 was slow, which was −79.6 km2 per month. While it was −213.0 km2 per month from 1997 to 2012 that was 2.7 times of the previous. Subsequently, from the decadal change of Arctic sea ice aspect, variation characters of extreme low temperature (ELT) over mid-high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, and related atmospheric circulation characters were discussed. Analyses of ELT frequency trend indicate that, there appears a spatial pattern of out-of-phase oscillation between most of the eastern and western hemispheres during 1979 to 1996. The ELT frequency over Eurasia shows a decreasing trend, and an increasing trend in the western hemisphere, especially over Greenland and middle latitude of Eurasia, which is linked closely to the North Atlantic oscillation. Conversely, there appears an out-of-phase seesaw pattern between the Arctic and northern mid latitude during the accelerated thawing of Arctic sea ice during 1997-2012. The typical character in large-scale surface level pressure anomaly is intensified Siberian high, which suggests more cold air invading into Eurasia continent.

文章引用: 黄 菲 , 狄 慧 , 胡蓓蓓 , 周 晓 (2014) 北极海冰的年代际转型及极端低温变化特征。 气候变化研究快报, 3, 39-45. doi: 10.12677/CCRL.2014.32007

参考文献

[1] Deser, C., Walsh, J.E. and Timlin, M.S. (2000) Arctic sea ice variability in the context of recent atmospheric circulation trends. Journal of Climate, 13, 617-633.

[2] Comiso, J.C. (2006) Abrupt decline in the arctic winter sea ice cover. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L18504.

[3] Meier, W.N., Stroeve, J. and Fetterer, F. (2007) Whither arctic sea ice? A clear signal of decline regionally, seasonally and extending beyond the satellite record. Annals of Glaciology, 46, 428-434.

[4] Nghiem, S.V., Rigor, I.G., Perovich, D.K., et al. (2007) Rapid reduction of arctic perennial sea ice. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L19504.

[5] Comiso, J.C., Parkinson, C.L., Gersten, R., et al. (2008) Accelerated decline in the arctic sea ice cover. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L01703.

[6] Honda, M., Yamazaki, K., Nakamura, H., et al. (1999) Dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of atmospheric response to anomalous sea-ice extent in the Sea of Okhotsk. Journal of Climate, 12, 3347-3358.

[7] Yamamoto, K., Tachibana, Y., Honda, M., et al. (2006) Intra-seasonal relationship between the Northern Hemisphere sea ice variability and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L14711.

[8] 杨金虎, 江志红, 魏锋等 (2009) 近45a来中国西北年极端高、低温的变化及对区域性增暖的响应. 干旱区地理, 29, 625-631.

[9] Frich, P., Alexander, L.V., Della-Marta, P., et al. (2002) Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century. Climate Research, 19, 193-212.

[10] Easterling, D.R., Evans, J.L., Groisman, P.Y., et al. (2000) Observed variability and trends in extreme climate events: A brief review. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 81, 417-426.

[11] Kosaka, Y. and Xie, S.-P. (2013) Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Nature, 501, 403-407.

[12] 翟盘茂, 潘晓华 (2003) 中国北方近50年温度和降水极端事件变化. 地理学报, 58, 1-10.

[13] North, G.R., Bell, T.L., Cahalan, R.F., et al. (1982) Sampling errors in the estimation of empirical orthogonal functions. Monthly Weather Review, 110, 699-706.

[14] Kenyon, J. and Hegerl, G.C. (2008) Influence of modes of climate variability on global temperature extremes. Journal of Climate, 21, 3872-3889.

[15] Wu, B., Handorf, D., Dethloff, K., et al. (2013) Winter weather patterns over Northern Eurasia and Arctic sea ice loss. Monthly Weather Review, 141, 3786-3800.

[16] 龚道溢, 朱锦红, 王邵武 (2002) 西伯利亚高压对亚洲大陆的气候影响分析. 高原气象, 21, 8-14.

[17] Gong, D.Y. and Ho, C.H. (2002) The Siberian High and climate change over middle to high latitude Asia. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 72, 1-9.

分享
Top